Baltic forestry


 Merilo, E., Eensalu, E., Tulva, I., Räim, O., Calfapietra, C. and Kull, O. 2010. Photosynthetic Response to Elevated CO2 in Poplar (POP-EUROFACE) in Relation to Leaf Nitrogen Partitioning.  Baltic Forestry 16(2): 162 – 171.

We examined the effect of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis and the allocation of leaf nitrogen to photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic pools in two poplar species (Populus alba, genotype 2AS11 and P. nigra, genotype Jean Pourtet) at the POP-EUROFACE site. In P. alba, the light-saturated photosynthetic rate at growth CO2 concentration (Asat) over two years was significantly higher (by 42%) in trees exposed to CO2 enrichment. In P. nigra, there was no significant difference, though on average Asat was 29% higher in the CO2 enrichment treatment. Stomatal conductance was significantly reduced by CO2 enrichment in both species: by 22% in P. alba and by 18% in P. nigra. Neither maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) nor maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) was reduced by CO2 enrichment. A change in the partitioning of leaf nitrogen between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic pools was detected in P. nigra: partitioning into non-photosynthetic nitrogen increased by 15% in elevated CO2 conditions. No differences were detected between the sun and shade leaves of either studied species in terms of their photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2. The greater allocation of leaf nitrogen into the non-photosynthetic pool in elevated CO2 conditions displayed by P. nigra in comparison with P. alba may explain the non-significant photosynthetic stimulation in the former.
Key words: net CO2 assimilation, nitrogen partitioning, non-photosynthetic nitrogen, photosynthetic down-regulation, Populus, stomatal conductance

 Yurchenko, E. O. and Sinyavskaya, M. G. 2010. An Assessment of Genetic Variation in Stereum hirsutum (Basidiomycota) Based on RAPD Markers.  Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 172 – 179.

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marking with five decamer primers (OPA-01, OPA-04, P36, P46, P49) was applied to 41 samples, which were fruitbody tissue isolates of corticioid wood decay fungus S. hirsutum from 18 collection sites in Belarus, situated 0.18–278 km apart. Each primer produced a unique fingerprint for each individual genotype. The samples belong to 35 different genotypes; the identity of RAPD profiles was observed for the samples collected from the same substratum unit. Among 65 reproducible RAPD loci selected for the analysis, there were no strictly monomorphic ones; a single marker had very high frequency (0.94); 29% of markers had the frequencies more than 0.5; the average marker frequency was 0.36. Cluster analysis showed no groups correlated with host, substratum type, or geographical origin, except 3 genotypes from the same collection site, forming a separate cluster. A collection site with the biggest subsample (26% of all studied genotypes) possessed 85% of bands and 100% of them were polymorphic inside this subsample. Average Dice similarity coefficient was almost identical between the genotypes within collection sites (less 0.15 km apart; SD =0.53) and for the widely separated individuals (more 40 km; SDD=0.52). The molecular data infer highly outcrossing reproduction mode in the studied regional sampling of S. hirsutum and the absence of any genetic differentiation.
Key words: Belarus, decamer primers, fingerprints similarity, outcrossing, Russulales

 Läänelaid, A. and Eckstein, D. 2010. Tree Growth in an Area Subsided due to Mining Activities in Northeast Estonia.  Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 180 – 186.

The radial growth of altogether 105 trees of spruce, pine, birch, aspen, black alder and rowan, growing in an area subsided due to mining activities in northeast Estonia, was measured. The tree-ring series were cross-dated and averaged according to tree species, and a possible influence of the surface deformation on tree growth was looked for. For the same reason, the annual basal area increment was calculated. It appeared that the subsiding event in 1998 has mostly resulted in an increase rather than a decrease of tree growth.
Key words: Tree-ring width, basal area increment, surface subsidence, mining, NE Estonia

 Vitas, A. and Žeimavičius, K. 2010. Regional Tree-Ring Chronology of European Larch (Larix decidua Mill.) in Lithuania.  Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 187 – 193.

A dendrochronological study of European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) has been carried out in Lithuania and a regional tree-ring chronology constructed. Our investigation, based on 25 experimental plots (351 trees), demonstrates that a similar growth pattern is characteristic of larch growing across Lithuania. The radial growth of larch is characterized by a high mean sensitivity (on average 0.35±0.01) and the occurrence of light rings. The compiled regional tree-ring chronology ranges from 1850 to 2008. The analysis of signature years has revealed that the formation of narrow rings is linked to hot/dry summers and of wide rings to warm winters and springs. The tree-ring patterns of larch and Norway spruce, growing in a mixed stand, are similar (correlations from 0.26 to 0.51, p≤0.01), while the similarity with Scots pine is much lower (correlations from 0.16 to 0.20, p from 0.03 to 0.13).
Key words: European larch, Lithuania, regional tree-ring chronology,tree-ring widths, signature years, climate

 Paal, J., Rajandu, E. and Köster, T. 2010. Vegetation-Environment Relationship in Estonian Hepatica Site Type Forests in the Light of A. K. Cajander’s Forest Site Type Approach.  Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 194 – 208.

In many countries, including Estonia, the interpretation of forest vegetation-environment relationship and forest typology proceeds from A. K. Cajander’s site type concept. It presumes that the environmental conditions of habitats, the tree layer productivity of forests, and ground vegetation composition are well correlated, whereas the tree layer composition may develop rather independently. We studied (i) how uniform are the soil conditions within the limits of Estonian mesic Hepatica forest site type communities, (ii) how similar the species content of these forests is in different districts, (iii) how the species content similarity is expressed in the different layers of forest communities and, (iv) which environmental factors determine the species richness most essentially. One study area was situated in western Estonia on calcareous soils lying on bedrock limestone, two areas in southern Estonia on parent material with variable calcareousness. The soils of these areas differ remarkably by their morphology and by their chemical properties. The average species richness of vascular plants and bryophyte species in all three areas appeared to be rather similar. The diversity of herb layer species was positively affected only by the habitat lightness, while we did not discover any analysed environmental variable for the moss layer, which had significant effect on the species richness. The species composition in forests of the three study areas differs significantly for the moss, herb and bush layer. For every forest community layer its own system of relationships between the species as well as between the species and environmental factors is characteristic. The relative autonomy of plant community layers is in good accordance with Cajander’s theory of forest site types. In western Estonia the height of trees, the diameter of stems and the timber volume are essentially lower than in southern Estonia due to the dryer soils. Therefore, it seems relevant to divide the Estonian Hepatica site type forests into two subtypes: the first is confined to calcareous soils in the western and northern Estonia and has lower habitat productivity potential for tree layer in comparison with the forests of the second subtype that grow mostly in the eastern and southern Estonia on soils mainly depending on the topographical location and parent material calcareousness but having a higher tree layer productivity.
Key words:Cajander, classification, layers, management, productivity, site type, soils, species richness, stand age, tree growth

 Luostarinen, K. and Möttönen, V. 2010. Radial variation in the anatomy of Betula pendula wood from different growing sites.  Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 209 – 216.

Radial trend in several anatomical characteristics is a well known phenomenon in tree trunks, as the young cambium forms juvenile wood before maturing. This phenomenon is stronger in softwoods than in hardwoods, and thus investigated less in the hardwoods. Another factor that may cause variations in the wood anatomy is growth rate, as it differs between growing sites of different fertility. In this study several anatomical characteristics were compared between silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) trees grown on different growing sites, of which two were fertile planted sites, and two less fertile naturally regenerated sites. Several of the measured characteristics had a radial trend, commonly increasing with cambial age, but decreasing in the case of number of rays per millimetre. However, radial diameter of earlywood fibres seemed to reach a stable size around 20-30 years of age, and thus it could be suitable for determining the maturation of silver birch wood. The clearest difference in wood anatomy between growing sites was that walls of both vessels and fibres were thicker in trees of natural than planted origin. In addition, the diameter of ray cells was clearly larger in naturally regenerated than in planted birches, although ray width was similar for all origins. The differences observed in cell wall thickness between growing sites most probably affect other properties of birch wood (e.g. density and colour) that are important in the mechanical use of birch timber.
Key words:Birch, diameter, fertility, fibre, growth rate, ray, vessel, wall thickness

 Hautamäki, S., Kilpeläinen, H., Kannisto, K., Wall, T. and Verkasalo, E. 2010. Factors Affecting the Appearance Quality and Visual Strength Grade Distributions of Scots Pine and Norway Spruce Sawn Timber in Finland and North-Western Russia.  Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 217 – 234.

Logs and centre-yield sawn pieces of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) from three regions in Finland and two regions in north-western Russia were studied for the variation in and predictability of grade distributions. Log and sawn piece properties were measured and statistical analyses conducted on the differences between geographical regions, in particular. Sawn pieces were graded for appearance quality and visual strength, according to the Nordic grading rules, into NT grades and T grades (Finnish application of INSTA 142 rules), respectively. The aim was to find out how accurately it would be possible to predict the grade yields from either the log properties or sawn timber properties using binary, or multinomial regression modelling, and, in particular, whether any regional differences remained thereafter.
The type of the log (vertical position and visual grade) was the most important single factor for both species when predicting grade yield using log properties as predictors. When sawn timber properties were used as predictors, the properties related to knots were the most substantial explanatory variables. Geographical region was not the major factor in predicting grade yield in either approach, but more evident for pine than spruce.
Multinomial regression models were used to predict both appearance quality and visual strength grade distribution. They were able to predict correctly 40-50% of the NT grade and 44-59% of the T grade in individual sawn pieces. Binary regression models were used to predict visual strength grade classes in order to have only two response categories, for example, the two highest grades compared to the two lowest grades. These models were the most accurate predicting correctly 76-83% of the dichotomous grade yield. The models predicting grade yield for pine performed better than the models for spruce.
There appeared significant differences in several log and sawn timber properties between the regions. The grade yields from the Novgorod and Vologda regions were lower than in Finland, in general. For spruce, the between-region differences in log and sawn timber properties were much smaller than for pine.
Key words: Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, sawn timber, appearance grading, visual strength grading, grade yield, Finland, Russia.

 Kuliešis, A., Saladis, J. and Kuliešis, A. A. 2010. Development and Productivity of young Scots Pine Stands by Regulating Density.  Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 235 – 246.

The key to the control of the productivity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the regulation of stand density. The growth of two Scots pine stands of the forest type Vaccinio-myrtillosa has been observed in the course of 16 years. The initial age varied from 4 to 8 years, while the initial density was in the range of 5,400-8,100 trees/ha. Both stands are planted, one on former agricultural land and the second on former forest land. Ten plots with two replications of 5 treatments were established in each stand at the beginning of the experiment. Starting with 600 trees/ha, the initial density was increasing at each subsequent treatment with 500-1,000 trees/ha, ending with the control stand. The density was regulated to provide different conditions for competition during the time of the experiment. Each treatment was re-measured 4 to 8 times during the period of 13 to 16 years.
Growing of stands with 2,000-3,000 (4,000) trees per ha over the period of 7-19 years has a positive influence on the height growth of trees. The mean diameter increment of trees growing in the most intensively thinned stands (600 trees per ha) exceeds the mean diameter increment of trees in the control stand by 1.8-2.8 times. The ratio of the mean tree volume increment of intensively thinned stand to the control stand comprises 3.1-3.7 at the age of 17-24 years. Early and intensive thinning of pine stands resulted essentially decreased competition, increased growth and higher level of accumulated wood increment per stand. The study outlines the conditions enabling to achieve intensive growth of tree diameter and a higher level of yield.
Key words: forest stand density, diameter, height and volume increment, competition, yield level.

 Malinauskas, A. and Urbaitis, G. 2010. Soil Preparation for Forest Plantations in Former Farmland Haplic Arenosols with and without Plough-pan.  Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 247 – 254.

The growth of pine, spruce and birch plantations as well as penetration of taproots into deeper soil layers were studied on former farmland soils with a formed plough-pan. The soil was prepared by deep plowing (60 cm), as well as by patch scarification and by complete soil plowing to the depth of 25-27 cm.
Normal plowing of light textured soils prevented the growth of vertical roots of spruce and birch, when soil density was over 1.6 gcm-3¨³. Deep plowing when compacted plough-pan turns out on soil surface provides more favourable conditions for the growth of taproots and increases their rooting depth. More favorable conditions for the root growth may significantly accelerate the growth of the above-ground part of trees. Pine seedlings survived and grew better for the first 3 years on former farmland Haplic Arenosols without plough-pan in shallow furrows (8-10 cm depth), while in year 4 the maximum increment were in completely plowed soil.
Key words: abandoned farmland, soil compaction, soil preparation, deep plowing, patch scarification, complete plowing furrowing, root growth .

 Luostarinen, K. and Heikkonen, S. 2010. Effects of Provenance, Radial Location of Wood and Drying Schedule on Colour of Dried Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica) Timber.  Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 255 – 263.

Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) timber is a good raw material, particularly for the mechanical wood industry, but drying it without any decrease in value is d ifficult and slow. The purpose of this research was to determine if radial location or drying schedule affect the colour of conventionally dried larch wood coming from two different provenances (Finland and Siberia). The basic density, final moisture content and width of annual rings differed between provenances and were taken into account as covariates. A total of five drying tests with three different schedules were performed, with reflectance spectra being measured from the inner parts of dried timber. The effect of drying schedule on the colour was minor. However, radial location affected the colour more clearly. The middle and inner heartwood were darker and redder than the wood located near the pith, particularly in the Siberian timber, while the wood located around the pith was reddest in the Finnish timber. In addition, the colour correlated with density regarding the Siberian, but not the Finnish timber, with the colour of the timbers of different provenances visibly differing. Thus provenances should be separated when drying larch wood to attain uniform colour.
Key words: annual ring width, basic density, conventional drying, L*C*h -colour coordinates, moisture content.

 Vahejõe, K., Albert, T., Noormets, M., Karp, K., Paal, T., Starast, M. and Värnik, R. 2010. Berry Cultivation in Cutover Peatlands in Estonia: Agricultural and Economical Aspects.  Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 264 – 272.

The aim of the study is to examine if lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) cultivation on cutover peatlands is as profitable as half-highbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium x Vaccinium cyrumbosum) and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) cultivation on mineral soil. In addition it is examined if, due to land use changes, the abandoned peat excavation areas can be turned into a profitable land resource. Current experiments tested the suitability of a former pine bog area abandoned after peat mining for the cultivation of lowbush blueberry. Wild berry cultivation on those fields is rather a new agricultural branch and growers need efficient producing technologies. As data about the nutrient needs of blueberry on cutover peat fields are still lacking, a fertilizing trial was carried out. In the fertilization study the yield was used as an agrotechnical indicator to evaluate the viability of peat soils usage. A benefit-cost ratio analysis was used to assess the profitability of blueberry cultivation. A questionnaire survey was conducted to gather data on the costs for establishing a plantation, its maintenance, harvesting and marketing costs. It was found that on cutover peat land the fertilized blueberries produced 200 to 535 g berries per plant. The economic analysis showed that the benefit-cost ratio for lowbush blueberry on cutover peat areas was 227 %. The benefit-cost ratio for half-highbush blueberry and strawberry cultivation on the mineral soil was significantly lower at 116% and 43%, respectively. The highest profit came from lowbush blueberry and was 6299 EUR ha-1, whereas the lowest was for strawberry at 2117 EUR ha-1 from cultivation on mineral soil. The profit from half-highbush blueberry cultivation on mineral soil was 4855 EUR ha-1. Finally, it can be concluded that lowbush blueberry cultivation allows to put cutover peat lands into use, and lowbush blueberry production on those areas is economically profitable.
Key words: Vaccinium angustifolium, land use, land abandonment, peat mining, fertilization, yield, economic analyses, benefit-cost ratio.

 Akay, A. E., Sessions, J., Serin, H., Pak, M. and Yenilmez, N. 2010. Applying Optimum Bucking Method in Producing Taurus Fir (Abies cilicica) Logs in Mediterranean Region of Turkey.  Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 273 – 279.

In producing forest products, it is essential to buck trees into high quality logs with maximum value. Performing bucking in an optimum way is an important factor to increase the value in timber production. Computer-assisted methods using modern optimization techniques (i.e. network analysis, dynamic programming, and heuristic techniques) can provide the forest engineers with an optimum solution for bucking problems by quickly evaluating large number of bucking combinations for a single tree. In Turkey, bucking is generally performed based on loggers’ experiences without any scientific approach. In this study, it was aimed to develop a stem-level optimum bucking algorithm that determines the optimum bucking pattern with maximum total stem value. The algorithm was implemented during a selective cutting of Taurus Fir (Abies cilicica) stands in the Baskonus Research and Application Forest of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University (KSU), located in the city of Kahramanmaras in eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. Dynamic programming (DP) method was used to develop the algorithm written with Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) Version 6.3 programming language. The results from the application indicated that using optimum bucking method increased the potential gross value and volume of the harvested trees by 9.31% and 4.18%, respectively, comparing with the traditional bucking method.
Key words: Optimum bucking, Logging, Optimization, VBA, Taurus Fir.

 Vassiljev P., Palo, T., Kull, A., Külvik, M., Bell, S., Kull, An. and Mander, Ü. 2010. Forest Landscape Assessment for Cross Country Skiing in Declining Snow Conditions: the Case of Haanja Upland, Estonia.  Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 280 - 295.

Snow cover is an important climatic characteristic as well as a significant recreational attraction of Estonian winter landscapes. In Estonia, over the last decade, the intensity of various forms of winter recreation has significantly increased. However, due to climate change the variability of snow cover is increasing year by year. Variations in snow cover are more significant in lowland areas while uplands retain more stable conditions. In order to identify suitable areas for developing cross-country ski-tracks likely to retain stable snow cover in what are also psychologically restorative natural environments, an integrated approach for landscape assessment has been developed. Micro- and meso-scale (1:10 000) studies of snow cover and climate in a highly diverse landscape were combined with an evaluation of the restorativeness of natural environments. Integrating snow cover investigations with questionnaire-based restorativeness analysis showed that forest edges have a higher value for both restorativeness and favourable snow conditions. Edge zones of forests provide inward and outward views, which were often considered more restorative by respondents. Thus, the routing of ski tracks towards the forest edge zone would tend to increase the restorativeness as well as giving a longer period of optimal skiing performance. Taking the micro-climatic conditions into account when planning the layout of cross-country ski-routes is likely to ensure the most efficient use of natural snow cover and higher quality ski tracks with lower maintenance costs. This also provides more opportunities for small-scale and family-run tourism enterprises, thus indirectly supporting the management of cultural landscapes for sustainable development.
Key words: GIS-based modelling, landscape assessment, forest landscape management, SRRS, psychological restoration, snow cover, winter recreation, cross-country skiing.

 Mizaraitė, D., Mizaras, S. and Sadauskienė, L. 2010. Lithuanian Private Forestry: the Situation, Tendencies and Problems.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 296 – 302.

This paper is based on a comparative analysis of private forest owners’ sociological surveys in the years 1999 and 2008. In Lithuania, private forestry arose during the last decade. Today, the private forest sector includes 236 thousand private forest owners. The annual volume from the felling in private forests is approximately 2.3 million mł (State forest survey service, 2008). The regeneration of private forests is satisfactory and the number of recorded illegal cuttings is decreasing. Over 30 thousand individual forest management plans have been prepared for private forest estates. During the last ten years, the private forests’ management legal basis and system of private forests supervision were created and the new system for private forest owners’ advising and training was initiated.
During the study period, the relative importance of private forest owners' various objectives changed. The importance of wood for home consumption slightly increased. However, the interest in obtaining an income from the wood trade and developing recreational areas became less important. Furthermore, the number of forest owners who either purchased or inherited forest estates significantly increased.
The level of importance of various forest estates management problems also changed. The problem of the strict regulations on private forest management decreased in importance during the last ten years. The most important problem for private forest owners was that the forest estates were inefficient for farming due to their small size. The number of private forest owners willing to sell their forest estate decreased. The majority of private forests owners intended to retain the forest estates and to give the property rights to inheritors in the future. The new EU financial support process arose during the last years. Approximately 16% of respondents intended to apply for financial support from EU funds.
The tendency of the expansion of private forests was observed. The existing problem of the private forest owners’ lack of education and training could be solved by establishing private forest services in municipalities. Furthermore, the compensation system should be improved in the future by compensating for losses in already protected areas.
Key words: private forests, owners, initial state, survey and tendencies.

 Grege-Staltmane, E. and Tuherm, H. 2010. Importance of Discount Rate in Latvian Forest Valuation.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 303 – 311.

Many forest scientists around the world have been spending a lot of time on forest value determination. One of the most widely used methods is the net present value method where asset’s value is calculated as the present value of future cash flow. The challenge of this method is the determination of an appropriate discount rate. A high discount rate reduces the present forest value. Therefore, the authors of the paper have analyzed available materials about discount rates in forestry, evaluating discount rate approaches, as well as inspection of specific cash flow subject to different discount rates with income from 1 ha spruce stand, which required an identical start-up capital. Research literature showed that the discounting involves decreasing a future value to its present value while compounding is the reverse. It was demonstrated clearly with the chart that high rates of compound interest cause a very rapid and unrealistic future value increase, while low rates cause slow value increase for a very long period represented by a common forest rotation; for that reason high discount rates used in forest investments are not rational. The factors – roundwood price, costs, increment and cutting age – are important for appropriate discount rate determination in forest valuation because these factors determine what can be earned. Forest risks may be incorporated by potential investors through application of a higher discount rate in case future incomes are endangered.
Key words: compound interest, discount rate, discount rate approaches, forestry risks, investment in forestry.

 Aleinikovas, M. 2010. The XXIII IUFRO World Congress in nSeoul.  Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 312 – 314.  (Chronicle)

IUFRO as 'the global network for forest science cooperation' was established in 1892. It has members of about 700 research institutions and universities from 110 countries and 15 thousand of forest scientists, government officials and international organization experts. IUFRO mission is to promote global cooperation in forest-related research and to enhance the understanding of the ecological, economic and social aspects of forests and trees; as well as to disseminate scientific knowledge to stakeholders and decision-makers and to contribute to forest policy and on-the-ground forest management. The largest forest meeting - the XXIII International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Congress ‘Forests for the Future: Sustaining Society and the Environment’ has been held in Seoul (South Korea) on 23-28 August 2010. The Congress course, programme and peculiarities have been described.

 Voolma, K. 2010. Recent Doctoral Theses from Estonia. Estonian University of Life Sciences.  Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 314.  (Chronicle)

The list of the recent Doctoral Theses is presented indicating the titles, defence place, names of authors and their contacts.

 Belova, O. 2010. Lithuanian Summaries.  Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 315 – 319.

Merilo, E., Eensalu, E., Tulva, I., Räim, O., Calfapietra, C. ir Kull, O. Fotosintezės atsakas į tuopos (eksperimentas 'POP-EUROFACE') CO2 koncentracijos padidëjimą sąsajoje su azoto pasiskirstymu lapuose.  Baltic Forestry 16(2): 162 – 171.
Yurchenko, E. O. ir Sinyavskaya, M. G. 2010. Stereum hirsutum (Basidiomycota) genetinės įvairovės įvertinimas, panaudojant APPD žymenis.  Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 172 – 179.
Läänelaid, A. it Eckstein, D. 2010. Medžių augimas buvusios kasyklos įgriuvos zonoje Šiaurės Rytų Estijoje.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 180 – 186.
Vitas, A. ir Žeimavičius, K. 2010.Europinio maumedžio (Larix decidua Mill.) metinių rievių regioninė chronologija Lietuvoje.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 187 – 193.
Paal, J., Rajandu, E. ir Köster, T. 2010. Sąsaja tarp augalijos ir aplinkos Estijos Hepatica miško tipų medynuose A.K. Kajanderio miško tipų klasifikacijos požiūriu.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 194 – 208.
Luostarinen, K. ir Möttönen, V. 2010. Skirtingose vietose augančio karpotojo beržo Betula pendula medienos radialioji variacija.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 209 – 216.
Hautamäki, S., Kilpeläinen, H., Kannisto, K., Wall, T. ir Verkasalo, E. 2010. Veiksniai, veikiantys paprastosios pušies ir paprastosios eglės sortimentų pasiskirstymą pagal kokybę ir stiprį, vertinant vizualiai bei modeliuojant Suomijoje ir Šiaurės-Vakarų Rusijoje.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 217 – 234.
Kuliešis, A., Saladis, J. ir Kuliešis, A. A. 2010. Paprastosios pušies želdinių vystymasis ir produktyvumas, reguliuojant tankumą.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 235 – 246.
Malinauskas, A. ir Urbaitis, G. 2010. Dirvos paruošimas žemės ūkiui naudotose sutankinto poarmenio ir be jo žemėse Haplic Arenosols.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 247 – 254.
Luostarinen, K. ir Heikkonen, S. 2010. Medienos provenencijų, radialiojo prieaugio bei džiovinimo režimo poveikis Sibirinio maumedžio (Larix sibirica) džiovintos medienos spalvai.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 255 – 263.
Vahejõe, K., Albert, T., Noormets, M., Karp, K., Paal, T., Starast, M. ir Värnik, R. 2010. Uogynų įveisimas apleistuose išeksploatuotuose durpynuose Estijoje: žemės ūkio ir ekonominiai aspektai.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 264 – 272.
Akay, A. E., Sessions, J., Serin, H., Pak, M. ir Yenilmez, N. 2010. Optimalaus medžių pjovimo metodo gamybinis pritaikymas kėnio (Abies cilicica) rąstams Turkijos Viduržemio regione.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 273 – 279.
Vassiljev P., Palo, T., Kull, A., Külvik, M., Bell, S., Kull, An. ir Mander, Ü. 2010. Miško kraštovaizdžio įvertinimas slidinėjimo trasoms nepastovios sniego dangos sąlygomis Haanja žemumoje Estijoje.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 280 - 295.
Mizaraitė, D., Mizaras, S. ir Sadauskienė, L. 2010. Lietuvos privatus miškų ūkis: būklė, tendencijos ir problemos.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 296 – 302.
Grege-Staltmane, E. ir Tuherm, H. 2010. Diskonto normos reikšmė Latvijos miškų vertinimui.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 303 – 311.
Aleinikovas, M. 2010. XXIII IUFRO pasaulinis kongesas Seule.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 312 – 314.  (Kronika)
Voolma, K. 2010. Naujos daktaro disertacijos Estijoje. Estijos gyvybės mokslų universitetas.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 314.  (Kronika)
Belova, O. 2010. Santraukos lietuvių kalba.   Baltic Forestry 16 (2): 315 – 319.


 Suchockas, V. 2010. Influence of Parent Trees Characteristics on Propagation of Hybrid Aspen by Root Cuttings.  Baltic Forestry 16(1): 2-7.

The influence of parental tree’s age on root cutting sprouting capacity was studied. It was found that the age of a parental tree had a great effect on sprouting capacity of aspen’s and its hybrids root cuttings. The age showed a strong and significant correlation with the percentage of sprouted root cuttings. Younger parental trees yielded a higher percentage of sprouted root cuttings.
The results also showed that root cutting diameter had an influence on offspring biometric parameters. A hypothesis that larger root cuttings accumulate higher amounts of nutrients and thus stimulate plant development was raised. This hypothesis was later confirmed by an actual finding that larger offspring are produced from larger root cuttings under uniform growth conditions. The results showed that higher sprouting capacity could be expected when the P. tremula x P. tremuloides hybrid rather than that of P. tremula x P.alba was used for root cutting preparation. It was found that sprouting percentage of P. tremula x P. tremuloides root cuttings reached 15% while that of P. tremula x P.alba root cuttings was just 9%.
Key words: aspen, root cutting, seedlings, height, diameter

 Šimatonytė, A. 2010. Possible Changes in the Pace of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Radial Increment in City Forests and Parks.   Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 8-15.

Air pollution determined threats for trees growing in cities will change due to warming climate and increasing air pollution after the end of Ignalina nuclear power plant exploitation. The aim of this research was to evaluate the pace of radial increment possible changes of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in future scenarios of warming climate and increasing SO2 and NO2 concentration in city atmosphere. Wood samples were collected from 80–90 year old sample pines, growing in parks and forest parks in Vilnius and Kaunas cities, for the analysis of annual radial increment reaction to environmental changes. Multiple regression models (describing 53–66 % of variability of actual dendroscales with probability of 95 %) for predicting pine radial increment were created. If recent cautious climate warming prognosis will be true, the pace of pine radial increment possible changes in cities will be rather slow in the coming 30 years: from +0.001 to +0.004 mm per year. The pace of pine radial increment possible changes in future scenario of increasing SO2 and NO2 concentration in city atmosphere will be slow: from -0.002 till -0.006 mm per year and pine radial increment in 2020 will decrease (by 0.03–0.05 mm) in major part of sample plots despite the positive impact of warming climate.
Key words: Scots pine, radial increment, warming climate, SO2 and NO2 concentration

 Cekstere, G. and Osvalde, A. 2010. Macronutrient Status in the Different-Aged Lime Trees (Tilia x vulgaris H.) in Riga Streets.   Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 16-22.

The research was done to evaluate the different-aged Lime trees (Tilia x vulgaris H.) supply with macronutrients on Riga streets (Latvia). The concentrations of 6 macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S) were estimated in the Lime leaf and soil samples collected from 15 objects (47 individual trees) in Riga during August of 2007. Along with the chemical analysis, a bioindication research was done to diagnose the physiological status of trees. The results revealed that the status of young street trees could be characterized as slightly damaged and damaged for old trees, in general. There was no close correlation between the concentration of element in the soil and lime leaves. Both in the soil and leaf samples the highest element concentration variance was stated for metals Ca and Mg, but the lowest – for non-metals S and N. Statistically significant differences were found for N, Mg, S in soil samples, and K, P, and S in leaf samples between the young and old lime trees (plantings as greenery). The main factors affecting negative T. x vulgaris mineral nutrition were very low supply with N, S, K, and elevate concentrations of P, Ca, Mg. Low concentrations of S, K, as well as Mg, P were stated in leaves. Well visible K deficiency symptoms in young tree leaves were observed.
Key words: lime trees, macronutrient imbalance, leaf analysis, soil analysis

 Augustaitis,A., Šopauskienė, D. and Baužienė, I. 2010. Direct and Indirect Effects of Regional Air Pollution on Tree Crown Defoliation.  Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 23-34.

Changes in tree crown condition, in most cases, may be related to the integrated impact of natural and anthropogenic factors, where S and N deposition, through the combination of direct, above-ground, impacts of SO2, NOx and NH4+ on foliage and indirect, soil-mediated, impacts on roots play a predisposing, accompanying and locally, even a triggering role. This study was designed to check which effect is more significant on changes in tree crown defoliation. The findings revealed that the direct effect of air pollutants and acid deposition should be a more significant on Scots pine crown defoliation than the indirect effects of acidifying compounds through soil, ground and runoff water. Needles, which are present on trees all year round, seem to be more efficient aerosol collectors than leaves. In contrast, the direct effect of the considered contaminators, especially N compounds, on birch defoliation, was less pronounced than their indirect effect. In most cases, the considered contaminators had a negative effect on crown condition; meanwhile nitrate, its deposition and concentration in soil and groundwater, had a positive effect. Ips typographus L., which caused the dying of spruce trees, did not allow fulfilling the task.
Key words: nitrogen and sulphur deposition, soil and ground water contamination, tree defoliation

 Verbylaitė, R., Beišys, P., Rimas V. and Kuusienė, S. 2010. Comparison of Ten DNA Extraction Protocols from Wood of European Aspen (Populus tremula L.).  Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 35-42.

It is difficult to extract pure high quality DNA from tree tissues, which may not be amenable to advances in extraction methods suitable for other plants. This is especially true for wood samples, that are easy to collect from mature trees, but difficult to handle afterwards. We have compared ten different DNA extraction techniques that are known to be effective in plant genomic DNA isolation. We have used six well known DNA extraction techniques as well as four commercially available kits for DNA extraction from European aspen (Populus tremula L.) trees grown in the forest. The quality of DNA was tested by spectrophotometry and PCR amplification of the chloroplast intergenic spacer region between tRNR L-F genes. The results indicate the success using SDS, protein precipitation and CTAB DNA extraction techniques, while other methods (CTAB precipitation, Guanidinium isothiocyanate and alkaline isolation) provided DNA of poor quality or contaminated DNA not suitable for PCR. Commercially available kits also gave different results: DNA isolation reagent for genomic DNA with Plant AC reagent (Applichem) provided DNA with strong contamination, while Nucleospin Plant II (Macherey-Nagel), Genomic DNA purification kit (Fermentas) and innuPREP Plant DNA Kit (Analytikjena) yielded good quality and satisfactory concentration of genomic DNA.
Key words: European aspen, Populus tremula, DNA extraction, wood, PCR amplification

 Rikala, R. and Lappi, J. 2010. Prediction of Height Development in First-year Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) Container Seedlings in a Nursery.   Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 43-49.

Most nurseries measure and document records of the environmental conditions and growth variables of seedling crops. The usefulness of this operationally collected data for crop scheduling and predicting seedling height has not been studied. We used operational 10 years’ data (information of growing measures of seedling batches, daily mean temperature and photoperiod, weekly monitored electrical conductivity and water content of growing medium) of commercially grown first-year container Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) seedling batches to predict height development of seedling batches. Our data did not support the idea that the termination of height growth could be predicted accurately on the basis of photoperiod and temperature sum in operational seedling production. The best indicator for the final height was the sowing date. Although the measured variables, especially average weekly nitrogen given, correlated with the final height of seedlings, these variables did not give any additional explanation to sowing date. Within seedling batches the germling height (height of seedling at the age of 5-6 weeks) did not predict well the final height of seedlings.
Key words: fertilization; growth rhythm; sigmoidal function; photoperiod, sowing date; temperature sum

 Raal, A., Kanut, M. and Orav, A. 2010. Annual Variation of Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Common Juniper (Juniperus communis L.) Branches from Estonia.  Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 50-56.

The yield and composition of the essential oil of common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) branches from Estonia were analyzed. The yields and composition of the oil isolated by hydrodistillation from dried juniper branches, gathered from one single juniper plant every month in 2006 and in 2007 (12 samples), were compared. The oil yields ranged between 0.05 – 0.70%. A total sixty seven compounds were identified, representing over 96% of the total oil yield. The essential oil from Estonian juniper branches showed a high content of ɑ-pinene (40.4 – 62.0%); the other predominant constituents were limonene (4.2 – 10.0%), ɑ-cadinol (1.9 – 6.3%), δ-cadinene (2.1 – 4.8%), ɣ-muurolene and germacrene D (1.6 – 4.4%), ϐ-myrcene (2.6 – 3.1%), ɑ- and ϐ-selinene (0.9 – 3.1%), germacren D-4-ol (0.8 – 3.0%) and ϐ-pinene (1.4 – 2.2%). The yield of essential oil and amounts of mono- and sesquiterpenes depend on the month of collecting the plant material. The best time for harvesting juniper branches seems to be from January to April. The yield and composition of essential oils in branches are rather similar, but did not completely correspond to the standards of European Pharmacopoeia stated to juniper berries.
Key words: Juniperus communis, common juniper, branches, essential oil, ɑ-pinene, harvesting time, European Pharmacopoeia

 Seo, J.-W., Salminen, H., Jalkanen, R. and Eckstein, D. 2010. Chronological Coherence between Intra-Annual Height and Radial Growth of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Northern Boreal Zone of Finland.   Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 57-65.

The phenophases of Scots pine, from bud break up to the end of cambium activity, at two sites (approx. 80 and 300 km, respectively, south of the forest border) in the northern boreal zone of Finland were monitored with high time resolution during three growing seasons. Averaged over the study sites and years, bud break occurred in the first half of May. Height growth started in the second half of May and radial growth followed around end of May/beginning of June. Both processes culminated in the second half of June, clearly before the warmest period of the year. Height growth finished by end of June/early July. Lastly, radial growth was completed by end of July/mid-August. Hence, the growing season from bud break to the end of radial growth took on average 87 days. However, annual shoot length and tree-ring width were independent from the duration of height and radial growth as well as from the onset dates for height growth and cambium activity, respectively.
Key words: Scots pine, phenophases, intra-annual height and radial growth, boreal zone

 Zhang, Ch., Zhao, X., Liu, X. and Gadow, K. von. 2010. Distributions and Spatial Associations of Dominant Tree Species in Korean Pine Broadleaved Old-Growth Forests in Changbai Mountains.   Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 66-75.

Pair correlation function g(r) was used to study the spatial patterns of five dominant species (Pinus koraiensis, Quercus mongolica, Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus mandshurica, Acer mono) in Korean pine and broadleaved multi-species forests in the Changbai Mountain areas. The spatial distribution at different growth stages (from saplings to small diameter trees and big trees) were studied, as well as the spatial associations of different species at different growth stages. Structural characteristics and distribution of canopy gaps, spatial relationships between canopy gaps and tree species with a height of less than 11.2m were also explored by studying the canopy horizontal projection. Pinus koraiensis and Quercus mongolica were distributed randomly and Acer mono was in a clumped pattern at some studied scales (r=1-11m, 13-16m, 20m, 33m and 43m scales). Fraxinus mandshurica (at smaller scales r=5m) and Tilia amurensis (r=1-2m, 9-11m and 16-18m) occurred in a clumped distribution. Among 10 species pairs which consisted of five dominant tree species, there were three species pairs (Pinus koraiensis and Tilia amurensis, Pinus koraiensis and Acer mono, Acer mono and Fraxinus mandshurica) which showed mutual attraction at several scales. Three species pairs (Pinus koraiensis and Fraxinus mandshurica, Tilia amurensis and Fraxinus mandshurica, Qercus mongolica and Acer mono) showed spatial exclusion. Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica appeared exclusions at r=21m scale and attractions at r=46m scale. The canopy gaps mainly occurred as a random distribution within the plot, with the exception of a regular distribution at the distances of r=6 to 11m.
Key words: Spatial distribution, spatial relationship, forest canopy gap, pair correlation function, Changbai Mountains

 Lõhmus, A., Kinks, R. and Soon, M. 2010. The Importance of Dead-Wood Supply for Woodpeckers in Estonia.  Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 76-86.

We explored which species of woodpeckers depend on the supply of standing dead trees (snags) in Estonia and how that dependence relates to their invertebrate prey base. In a 900-km2 area in east-central Estonia, we described the snag supply within a radius of 600 m around 73 nests of six woodpecker species and in 30 random transects representing the available forest landscape. We modelled woodpecker habitat preferences as differences between the snag supply around their nests and in random transects, analysed the incidence of woodpecker foraging signs in terms of dead-wood characteristics, and estimated the abundance of arthropods in bark samples collected from snags in late winter. The results confirmed the division of woodpeckers into ‘snag specialist’ and generalist species. Characteristically, the abundant snag supply in the nesting territories of the three specialised species – White-backed Woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos), Lesser Spotted Woodpecker (D. minor) and Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) – included many alders and Norway spruces and few Scots pines, which generally followed the frequency of use and arthropod abundance in these trees. The scarcity of arthropods in the bark samples from birch coincided with a low frequency of foraging signs on its trunks; however, birch was not avoided around the nests and may host important prey base in its abundant fungal fruit-bodies. Larger snags tended to have more arthropods per unit of bark area but their importance for woodpeckers was not clear. We concur with previous suggestions that the requirements of specialised woodpeckers can be used for deriving tentative targets of snag-retention. In this study, their nesting probability increased from 25% to 75% when snag densities (≥5 cm diameter, ≥0.5 m height; pine snags excluded) increased from 100 to 200 trunks per hectare. However, snag management should be spatially explicit, because such levels can hardly be sustained all over the landscape, and also consider at least epixylic fungi and specific insects, which require different types of snags than woodpeckers.
Key words: dead wood, forest management, habitat selection, snag, woodpecker

 Treinys, R. and Mozgeris. G. 2010. Relationship between the Productivity of the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina and Forest Characteristics at the Macrohabitat Level.  Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 87-92.

Until now, forest characteristics of Lesser Spotted Eagle macrohabitat have received very little attention. Productivity relationships with macrohabitat forest characteristics are also undiscovered despite the fact that forests cover a considerable part of the Lesser Spotted Eagle macrohabitats. We investigated forest age and tree species composition in Lesser Spotted Eagle macrohabitats and their relationships with productivity of the species. The species at the macrohabitat level significantly avoided coniferous, pine and middle-aged forests and preferred deciduous, black alder and mature forests. We found no evidence that forest age and tree species composition in Lesser Spotted Eagle macrohabitats were related to the productivity of the species. We suggest that the population of the species can be adversely affected by unbalanced forestry not only at the nest-site, but also at the landscape level.
Key words: Aquila pomarina, preference, productivity, forest, macrohabitat

 Zeniauskas, R. and Gedminas, A. 2010. Insects Infesting Norway Spruce (Picea abies Karst.) Branches in Clear-cuts and Adjacent Stands.  Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 93-101.

For the determination of forest entomofauna migration, the assessment of its distribution is very important. The investigation was carried out in 2004-2006 in in the clear-cuts of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) in Dubrava Experimental and Training Forest Enterprise. The aim of the present work was to estimate the distribution of xylobiont insects breeding under the bark of spruce branches in the clear-cuts and adjacent spruce stands. The assessment of underbark xylobiont insects was made using a method of sample branches and eclector traps. During the research, 1272 spruce branches were examined. A total of 32 insect species in spruce branches were found. The number of phytophagous and entomophagous species was 19 and 11, respectively. The Coleoptera order dominated comprising 93.7% of all xylobiont insects in spruce branches. Pityogenes chalcographus was the most abundant species (75.6% of beetles in total) among the coleopterans. The mean number of phytophages and entomophages was significantly (p≤0.05) 3 times less in the clear-cuts, than in the adjacent stands. Shannon‘s index showed poor species diversity, and was 0.3 (in the clear-cuts) and 1.34 (in adjacent stands). The difference was statistically significant (t≥1.96, p≤0.05). Sorenson‘s similarity measure of xylobiont insects species was 0.51 in the clear-cuts and adjacent stands.
Key words: clear-cut, spruce stand, spruce branches, xylobiont insects, trophic group

 Malinen, J., Piira, T., Kilpeläinen, H., Wall,T. and Verkasalo, E. 2010. Timber Assortment Recovery Models for Southern Finland.  Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 102-112.

Along with the total volume harvested, the recovery of timber assortments defines the suitability of the marked stands for different uses of wood. The recovery of the different assortments impacts, to a great extent, the sale value of the stand for the forest owner as well as on the processing value for the wood buyers. In this paper, models to predict the timber assortment recoveries of Scots pine and Norway spruce in clear-cutting stands in southern Finland are presented concerning the application of different bucking instructions for the targeted timber assortments, and for the allowed log dimensions. The material consisted of empirical data from 124 stands in southern Finland collected from circular sample plots. The timber recoveries, when using different timber assortment combinations, were modelled as separate model chains. The potential predictor variables were required to be easily measurable within the limits of capabilities by the forest owner or by the wood buyer. Stand characteristics used as potential predictor variables included variables depicting site fertility, tree species composition, stand volume, and stem size distribution. Furthermore, concerning the options to cut each assortment, the minimum log lengths and top diameters were used as potential predictor variables describing the bucking instructions applied.
Key words: assortment recovery, modelling, bucking simulation

 Grekin, M. and Verkasalo, E. 2010. Variations in Basic Density, Shrinkage and Shrinkage Anisotropy of Scots Pine Wood from Mature Mineral Soil Stands in Finland and Sweden.  Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 113-125.

Variations in basic density, radial and tangential shrinkage, and shrinkage anisotropy of wood in mature Scots pine trees growing on mineral soil stands were studied based on empirical materials from five geographical regions in Finland and Sweden. Cambium age explained better the pith-to-bark variation in basic density, as well as in tangential and radial shrinkage, than the distance from the pith. The model for radial density variation was evaluated on a cross-sectional scale; it explained approximately 50% of the density variation of the cross-sections. Based on the mixed model analysis with repeated measurements structure, approximately 52% of the variation in basic density on a cross-sectional scale was explained by the geographical origin and height position within a tree. By adding variables describing the trees and stands more precisely, approximately 64% of the total variation within trees and between trees, stands, and regions could be explained. In both cases, within-tree and between-tree random variation was statistically significant. The geographical origin affected significantly the variability in the studied properties; especially the within-tree variations decreased from the south to the north. On the other hand, the average level of radial and tangential shrinkage, as well as basic density, was the lowest in the north.
Key words: Pinus sylvestris, Scots pine, wood quality, basic density, shrinkage, linear mixed model, repeated measures

 Huuhilo, T., Martikka, O., Butylina, S. and Kärki, T. 2010. Impact of Mineral Fillers to the Moisture Resistance of Wood-Plastic Composites.  Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 126-131.

The impact of mineral fillers to the moisture resistance of the wood-plastic composites (WPC) is studied. Five inorganic fillers were tested for the wood-plastic composites calcium carbonate, two different types of wollastonite, soapstone and talc. The amount of polypropylene, wood and mineral was held constant, only the mineral type was changed during the tests. The studied composites were also compared with a reference sample, which was manufactured without any mineral addition. All added minerals decreased the swelling and moisture absorption of the wood-plastic composite considerably. Also the density of the wood-plastic composites increased when minerals were added. Without any added mineral, clear openings could be seen in the composite structure in scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures. These openings could work as pathways for water into the inner parts of the WPC and increase swelling. It could also be seen in the SEM pictures that when mineral was added, these pathways for moisture were closed. After three weeks soak/freeze/dry cycles, the bending strength of the reference sample decreased considerably more than the bending strength of the samples with added minerals. Of the studied minerals, talc was the most effective.
Key words: wood-plastic composite, mineral, moisture resistance

 Ozturk, T. and Senturk, N. 2010. Productivity and Time Studies of MB Trac 900 Tractor at Beech Stands on Mountainous Areas in Turkey.  Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 132-138.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the productivity of the MB Trac 900 tractor during extraction of beech timber from stand of oriental beech in the North of Turkey. By using the methods of time study, the productivity of MB Trac 900 tractor was determined considering two different average skidding distances (i.e. short : 55 m and long: 105 m). The research results implied that some working characteristics of the MB Trac 900 tractor such as skidding distance, load volume, time consumption of handling operations and fuel consumption had an important impact on productivity of the tractor. Hourly productivity was computed as 14.580 m³/hour for the average skidding distance of 55 m while it was 8.850 m³/hour for the average skidding distance of 105 m. The cost of skidding was 3.5 $/m³ and 9.6 $/m³ for the specified average skidding distances, respectively. The average load volume for each cycle was found to be 1,490 m³ and 2,130 m³, respectively.
Key words: MB Trac 900, skidding, productivity, cost, time study

 Petrokas, R. 2010. Prerequisites for the Reproduction of Wild Cherry (Prunus avium L.).  Baltic Forestry 16 (1):139-153(Review Paper).

Owing to its considerable capacity of seed dispersal and rapid propagation through adventitious sprouts from the root system, Wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) behaves as a colonizing species of initial succession stages and during progressing succession of the local disturbance it may become a component of climax or close-to-climax mesophilous forest ecosystems. A policy of non-management, especially following winter storms, may help maintain genetic diversity of Wild cherry through increased levels of both sexual and clonal recruitment. The aim of this review is an overview on the state of the knowledge about management influences on reproductive strategy of Wild cherry within the scope of its phenological behaviour. The vegetative and generative phenological behaviour of Wild cherry occurring as the result of ontogenetic variations in the traits of the trees and their parts could be monitored and described and the role of management (or environment) influences in determining this behaviour could be related. Some of the hypotheses, which are to be discussed in the research of Wild cherry reproduction, are presented in detail.
Key words: management influences, phenological behaviour, Prunus avium, reproduction

 Belova, O. 2010. Lithuanian Summaries.  Baltic Forestry, 16 (1): 154-159.

Suchockas, V. Motinmedžių savybių įtaka hibridinės drebulės dauginimui gyvašaknėmis.  Baltic Forestry 16(1): 2-7.
Šimatonytė, A. 2010. Paprastosios pušies (Pinus sylvestris L.) radialiojo prieaugio galimi pokyčiai miestų miškuose bei parkuose.  Baltic Forestry 16(1): 8-15.
Cekstere, Osvalde, A. 2010. Įvairiaamžių liepų (Tilia x vulgaris H.) apsirűpinimo makroelementais laipsnis Rygos gatvėse.  Baltic Forestry 16(1): 16-22.
Augustaitis,A., Šopauskienė, D. ir Baužienė, I. 2010. Regioninės oro taršos tiesioginis ir šalutinis poveikis medžių lapų defoliacijai.  Baltic Forestry 16(1): 23-34.
Verbylaitė, R., Beišys, P., Rimas V. and Kuusienė, S. 2010. Dešimties DNR išskyrimo iš drebulės (Populus tremula L.) medienos protokolų palyginimas.  Baltic Forestry 16(1): 35-42
Rikala, R. ir Lappi, J. 2010. Medelynuose auginamų konteinerinių vienmečių paprastosios eglės (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) sėjinukų augimo į aukštį prognozavimas.   Baltic Forestry 16(1): 43-49.
Raal, A., Kanut, M. ir Orav, A. 2010. Paprastojo kadagio (Juniperus communis L.) šakų eterinių aliejų metiniai pokyčiai Estijoje.  Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 50-56.
Seo, J.-W., Salminen, H., Jalkanen, R. ir Eckstein, D. 2010.Chronologinis ryšis tarp paprastosios pušies (Pinus sylvestris L.) sezoninio prieaugio į aukštį ir radialiojo prieaugio Suomijos šiaurinėje borealinėje zonoje.  Baltic Forestry 16(1): 57-65.
Zhang, Ch., Zhao, X., Liu, X. ir Gadow, K. von. 2010. Vyršaujančių rūšių medžių erdvinis pasiskirstymas ir erdvinės asociacijos Korėjos pušų - plačialapiuose senuose miškuose Čiangbei kalnuose.   Baltic Forestry 16(1): 66-75.
Lõhmus, A., Kinks, R. ir Soon, M. 2010. Negyvosios medienos svarba geniams Estijoje.  Baltic Forestry 16(1): 76-86.
Treinys, R. ir Mozgeris. G. 2010. Mažojo erelio rėksnio Aquila pomarina produktyvumo ir makrobuveinės miško charakteristikų ryšys.  Baltic Forestry 16 (1): 87-92.
Zeniauskas, R. ir Gedminas, A. 2010. Vabzdžiai, kolonizuojantys paprastosios eglės šakas kirtavietėse ir gretimuose medynuose.  Baltic Forestry 16(1): 93-101.
Malinen, J., Piira, T., Kilpeläinen, H., Wall,T. ir Verkasalo, E. 2010. Medienos sortimentų gamybos modeliai Pietinei Suomijai.  Baltic Forestry 16(1): 102-112.
Grekin, M. ir Verkasalo, E. 2010. Brandžių medynų paprastosios pušies medienos bazinio tankio, nuodžiūvio ir nuodžiūvio anizotropijos variacijos Suomijoje ir Švedijoje.  Baltic Forestry 16(1): 113-125.
Huuhilo, T., Martikka, O., Butylina, S. ir Kärki, T. 2010. Mineraliniių užpildų įtaka medžio ir plastiko kompozitų atsparumui drėgmei.  Baltic Forestry 16(1): 126-131.
Ozturk, T. ir Senturk, N. 2010. Traktoriaus MB Trac 900 našumo ir laiko tyrimai buko medynuose Turkijos kalnuotose vietovėse.  Baltic Forestry 16(1): 132-138.
Petrokas, R. 2010. Prielaidos trešnės (Prunus avium L.) reprodukcijai.  Baltic Forestry 16(1): 139-153. (Apžvalga)
Lietuviškos santraukos. 2010.  Baltic Forestry 16(1): 154-159.


 Kangur, A., Belova, O., Voolma, K. and Jõgiste, K. 2009. Contrasting Factors Causing Disturbances in Forest Ecosystems: Observations and Experiments.   Baltic Forestry 15 (2): 139-142.

The causes for disturbances have complex patterns depending on anthropogenic influence on forest ecosystems. Different management intensity and pattern are intermixing with disturbances. Intensively managed forest is sensitive to disturbances, and risk is higher. The management implicitly of explicitly involves the disturbances and this has important analysis task to create reliable models. Disturbances operate at multiple spatial scales and often disturbances at different scales interact, producing multi-scale habitat diversity, from microhabitats to landscape patterns. Therefore, it becomes important to know the “after effect” from the creation of artificial mixtures mimicking the natural regeneration processes and patterns. The effects of different disturbance agents on three different spatial ecosystem levels are described. Baltic States are quite unique forest landscape laying in the borderline of different management intensity. We could call this as an ecotone between management regimes is not understood uniformly.
Forestry is an essential component in the ecological, economical, and social structure of both the Nordic Countries and the Baltic States. Sustainable ecosystem management requires an understanding of the generative ecosystem process. These include natural disturbance processes and the responses of ecosystems to disturbances. The overall goal of the SNS (Nordic Forest Research Cooperation Committee) network is to develop and promote an active network in both the study of natural disturbance regimes and in an ecosystem based approach to forest management in the Baltic region. The aims of the SNS network have been addressed by linking and connecting scientists, researchers, teachers and students working on the field of forest disturbances. For keeping the network contacts alive an annual meetings have been organized. The summary of network meetings is presented.

 Köster, K., Ilisson, T., Tukia, H., Jõgiste, K. and Möls, T. 2009. Early Effects after Forest Disturbance in Decomposition of Trees in two Windthrown Areasin East Estonia.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 143-150.

Coarse woody debris (CWD), represented by logs and snags (>10 cm in diameter and >1.3 m in length/height), were sampled from two Eastern Estonian windthrow events (Tudu and Halliku), where storm occurred in the summers of 2001 and 2002. CWD was sampled to identify factors that affect early wood decomposition and changes in wood density. Tree species sampled included Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and birch (Betula spp.). In total 944 subsamples were taken from sample trees on permanent sample plots located in totally damaged (TD), partly damaged (PD) and control areas with no damage (ND). Wood densities after the initial period of decomposition were different, depending on tree species, log or snag position (downed, leaning, standing), damage severity (TD area or PD area) and subsample position on sample disks (inner or outer layer of the disk). Most of the CWD was in the second class of decomposition (color of wood had changed and knife enters 1–2 cm into the wood), with mean CWD densities of 0.483 g cm³ to 0.571 g cm³ for spruce and 0.581 g cm³to 0.778 g cm³ for birch. Annual decomposition rates ranged from 0.78% to 5.57% for spruce and 2.19% to 7.42% for birch. Downed logs had lower density than leaning logs and standing snags. Snags/logs from TD area had a lower density than snags/logs from PD areas, thus they were decomposing faster.
Key words: dead wood, wood density, decay affecting factors, mixed models, windthrow

 Sims, A., Kangur, A., Hordo, M., Kiviste, A., Jõgiste, K and Gadow, K.v. 2009. Tracking Disturbance-induced Changes in Stand Development at Irregular Measurement Intervals in the Järvselja Forest Experiments.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 151-160.

Long-term sample plots have been used to study pathways of succession, and its mechanisms and causes. These observations are relevant not only to communities protected from human interference, but also to managed forests, where the objective is to explain response patterns following specific harvesting operations. The establishment and maintenance of a series of permanent plots requires a firm commitment beyond short-term economic fluctuations and political changes; nevertheless, such long-term experiments may be abandoned prematurely because of a lack of funding or changing policies. One aspect which has received little attention in the past is the “revival” of previously abandoned field plots. This paper analyses data from the Järvselja long-term forest experimental field plots which were abandoned in 1959 and “revived” in 1995 and 2004. This study distinguishes between two kinds of disturbance: natural and anthropogenic. The impacts of both kinds of disturbance are evaluated in terms of weight (quantity of biomass) and type (relative size of outgoing trees). Finally, the study evaluates density-dependent mortality or self-thinning using Reineke’s limiting line and Nilson’s stand sparsity. Our analysis found Nilson’s approach better suited for interpreting the limiting relationship in mixed forests and for estimating maximum density for different stand and site types; therefore, this topic will be pursued in future studies based on the extensive database of the Estonian Forest Research Plots Network.
Key words: long-term forest experiments, measurement gap, Reineke’s limiting line, Nilson’s stand sparsity

 Zielonka, T., Holeksa, J. and Malcher, P. 2009. Disturbance Events in a Mixed Spruce – Larch Forest in the Tatra Mts., Western Carpathians – a Tentative Reconstruction.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 161-167.

In this study paper we studied the effect of a severe and large scale windstorm which destroyed 12,000 ha of the Lariceto – Piceetum forest in the Slovakian High Tatra Mts. in 2004. Despite similar diameter and age structure of spruce and larch populations both species exhibited different resistance on the storm impact. Larch trees proved to be more resistant on heavy wind than spruce, and chances of survival of larch increased with its diameter. Spruce was almost totally eliminated from the stand. Irrespective of the species more trees died because of uprooting then because of breakage. The number of broken spruce stems increased with diameter compared with uprootings. Among thinnest diameter classes the number of breakages was more than twice lower than uprootings and among the thickest trees (exceeding diameter of 60 cm) most trees were broken. In case of larches most vulnerable on wind were thinner trees. Larch trees in diameter exceeding 40 cm had 50% survival chances while among stems below 40 cm only 17% remained intact after windstorm. The higher survival rate of larch probably resulted from their small crowns that were leafless in late fall when windstorm occurred. This shows a direct selective effect of a wind as a disturbance factor in the Lariceto – Piceetum forest in Tatra Mts. Tentative analyses of tree-rings based on 75 cross – sections from the oldest stumps of the damaged trees indicated abrupt changes in the growth pattern during the last two hundred years. The synchronized and strong release pulses in spruces and larches in the 19th century may indicate the occurrence of severe and infrequent disturbances in the past.
Key words: dendroecology, disturbance, Larix decidua, Picea abies, release signal, Tatra Mts

 Pärn, H., Mandre, M. and Tilk, M. 2009. Changes in the Growth of Silver Birch (Betula pendula Roth) and Black Alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) Seedlings on Peat Soils Fertilised with Wood and Peat Ashes.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 168-176.

The short-term influence of different biofuel ashes on the growth of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) seedlings and suitable wood, peat and mixed ash doses for regulating biomass production on peat soil were studied. The experiments were conducted with 1-year-old seedlings planted in vegetation pots. The growth of seedlings for different ash treatments was analysed using the variations in the absolute values of mean annual increments of the height and diameter at the root collar of seedlings, by the final heights and diameters at the end of the experiment, by the increase in height and diameters compared to corresponding initial parameters in the year of the application of ashes and finally the growth of fertilised seedlings was compared with the growth of unfertilised seedlings. In the first growing season the growth of silver birch seedlings of all treatments exceeded that of the control seedlings. In the second growing season the height increments of treatments with higher doses of peat and mixed ash were considerably larger than those for control seedlings. Only the application of the larger doses of peat ash increased significantly the height and radial growth over a 2-year period as a whole compared to the control. Wood ash, particularly the smaller amounts used in experiments, favoured the growth of the black alder seedlings. Along with wood ash peat ash is a promising tool in the afforestation of cut-away peatlands.
Key words: biofuel ashes, cut-away peatlands, fertilisation, silver birch, black alder

 Lukjanova, A. and Mandre, M. 2009. The Effect of Wood Ash Fertilisation on the Anatomy and Localisation of Lignin in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Needles.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 177-185.

The effect of wood ash application to the soil on the anatomy and lignin accumulation in the needles of 20-year-old Scots pine trees growing on nutrient poor sandy soil (Arenosol) was investigated. Comparative-analytical studies were conducted in seven sample plots treated with different doses of wood ash (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 kg m²) and in a control plot without treatment. For anatomical analyses cross-sections of needles of one and two years old were made. These were stained, photographed under microscope and measured. Analysis showed that, in general, the current year needles had the largest average value of anatomical characteristics in all sample plots. At the same time the xylem of the needles of pines from the sample plot with wood ash application of 1.0 kg m² and from the control plot increased with age. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the anatomical characteristic between the needles from trees growing on sample plots treated with 0.5 and 1.0 kg m² and the control plot were detected. The greatest anatomical differences between these needles were detected in the oldest needles. Histochemical analysis showed a greater degree of lignification of cellular walls in older needles and more intensive accumulation of lignin in the needles from sample plots treated with 0.5 and 1.0 kg m². Morphological measurements showed the positive trends in the length and mass of needles at 0.25 kg m² wood ash.
Key words: Pinus sylvestris, needle anatomy, lignification, wood ash

 Kuznetsova, T., Tilk, M., Ots, K., Lukjanova, A. and Pärn, H. 2009. The Growth of Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) in a Reclaimed Oil Shale Mining Area, Abandoned Agricultural Land and Forestland.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 186-194.

The main objective of the study was to analyse lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) growth in relation to soil nutrients in a reclaimed oil shale mining area (ROSMA), abandoned agricultural land (AAL) and forestland (FL). The growth–soil interactions and soil–needle chemical relationships were analysed and compared in lodgepole pine plantations at various sites. The impact of soil conditions on tree growth was significant; the height and diameter of trees were different between the studied sites. Despite the higher P and K concentrations in the soil in ROSMA, the concentrations of these elements in needles were lower compared to the AAL and FL. This may be caused by the high value of soil pH and K / Ca antagonism. Although the concentrations of the elements in the needles were lower in ROSMA, the needles were longer and heavier. This was possibly due to the higher N and P use efficiency in the lodgepole pine plantation on the ROSMA. The growth of lodgepole pine was better in more fertile environments, in our study the AAL or on the clay substrates of ROSMA compared to the FL.
Key words: lodgepole pine, growth, biomass, nutrient concentration, soil type

 Hordo, M., Metslaid, S. and Kiviste, A. 2009. Response of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Radial Growth to Climate Factors in Estonia.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 195-205.

The following research paper analyzes Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) radial growth responses to climatic factors in mesotrophic and heath forest site types in Estonia. Increment cores from 889 trees from 119 plots of the network of research plots were used and chronologies for mesotrophic and heath forest site types of Scots pine were constructed. The relationship between climatic factors and the radial growth of Scots pine was characterized by correlation coefficient; also pointer year analysis, Cropper method was applied to single tree series. Cropper values were calculated; extreme negative and positive pointer years were identified. According to analyses, 1940 and 1985 were the most significant negative pointer years among different sites; and significant positive years were 1945, 1946, 1989, and 1990. Extreme Cropper values indicated significant positive correlation with the monthly mean temperature in winter (January, February) and early spring (March, April) before a growing season; also with the mean annual temperature and the mean temperature of the vegetation period (from April to September). Significant negative correlation was found between the extreme Cropper value and the precipitation of the previous year August. Therefore, temperature can be considered as the most important single factor of growth activity. Pointer year analyses confirmed that severe winters, cool springs and dry summer conditions are the main causes for the sharp decrease in radial growth.
Key words: climate variables, pointer years, radial growth, Scots pine, tree-ring chronology

 Parro, K., Köster, K., Jõgiste, K. and Vodde, F. 2009. Vegetation Dynamics in a Fire Damaged Forest Area: the Response of Major Ground Vegetation Species.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 206-215.

As fire is inherent to boreal forest, sustainable forest management should consider emulating this disturbance type, taking into account the natural fire regime and the historical impact of humans. Fire often removes the dominant species and reveals mineral soil, which allows new species to spread on burned areas. Variable conditions provide habitat for many different species. Fire is sometimes necessary for the retention of species, which do not regenerate in the absence of fire. Fire-damaged forest stands are often salvage logged. The necessity of this procedure can be disputed, as the cleaning may decrease biodiversity, favour pioneer herbs and shrubs, which are highly competitive with tree regeneration, and disturb the ecosystem’s nutrient cycle. The effect of burning and post-fire cleaning was studied. Ground vegetation was investigated during three subsequent years, 2004–2006, in fire-damaged pine forest areas in North-western and South-eastern Estonia, both dry and wet site types. Fire occurred 10–12 years prior to the inventories in the first and 2–4 years in the latter. The vegetation survey took place on 2×2m squares undergoing three different treatments: Burnt and Cleaned (BC), Burnt and Uncleaned (BU) and Control (CO). Floral composition differed significantly between treatments. Biodiversity was higher on burnt plots than in control plots in humid areas and lower in dry areas. On dry sites, Molinea caerulea and Calluna vulgaris benefit from cleaning, which may hamper pine regeneration. Prescribed burning on such sites can reduce the fire risk. On wet sites, there was no significant difference between pioneer and shade-tolerant species between cleaned and uncleaned areas. Whether cleaning after fire should be maintained as a management action therefore depends greatly on the forest site type and other circumstances, such as management objectives and surrounding stands.
Key words: boreal forest, ground vegetation, succession, prescribed fire, post-fire management, salvage logging

 Kardakov, A., Kiviste, A. and Peterson, U. 2009. Assessment of Driving Factors Affecting Radiance Changes in Regenerating Mixed Forest Clearcuts Using Landsat Winter Imagery.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 216-225.

This paper describes an approach for estimating the effect of stand variables on radiance of forest patches that were regenerating after the disturbance of clearcut felling. Analysis was performed on a difference image of a two-date Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image pair. Landsat TM images from late winter made in plain snow cover conditions – a non-traditional season for forest mapping – were used in the study. Seasonal snow cover in winter in boreal and hemi-boreal latitudes presents specific conditions with high target (stems and branches of shrubs and trees) to background radiance contrast and is therefore a well-timed season for the detection of subtle changes in shrub and tree cover in patch areas regenerating after disturbance.
The results of the study show that, in all spectral bands studied (TM1–TM4), there is a significant effect of patch age (i.e.) time passed since disturbance of clearcut logging, on the radiance difference of regenerating patches on a difference image. Radiance change in none of the Landsat TM bands 1–4 was found more sensitive than others to patch variables. The marginal effect of Spruce index, a binary variable denoting whether the patch was managed as a young spruce stand or a deciduous stand, means that the chance for discrimination of young spruce-dominated stands from deciduous-dominated stands in winter images is low in most cases. No significant effect of stand variables on patch-wise differences was found between the patch areas classified from difference image to that represented in the forestry database. There was a significant effect of the type of neighbours – either bright or dark – on the estimation of the patch area on a difference image.
Key words: forest change detection, Landsat TM winter images, clearcut regeneration

 Padari, A., Metslaid, S., Kangur, A., Sims, A. and Kiviste, A. 2009. Modelling Stand Mean Height in Young Naturally Regenerated Stands – a Case Study in Järvselja, Estonia.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 226-236.

A classic approach to obtain stand height HDq in advanced stands in Estonia has been to use regression height at the quadratic mean diameter Dq. In juvenile stands, where a considerable number of seedlings have not reached breast height, the modelling of the height distribution instead of the breast height diameter dbh distribution is more practical. Also, the field assessment methodologies differ for juvenile and advanced stands. In younger stands mean height and stem number are assessed. In advanced stands (dbh larger than 6 cm) these variables are replaced with basal area, quadratic mean diameter and regression height. This study evaluates the predictive abilities of different mean height calculation functions in various tree species in naturally regenerated stands. We analyze different young stand height calculation methods in comparison with the classical stand height HDq calculation method. Two independent sets of empirical materials were employed in our study: 27 plots from Estonian Network of Forest Research Plots (ENFRP) were used in regression analysis and three forest regeneration study areas (45 plots) at Järvselja (JS plots) were used for model validation. In the current study the r-power mean height Hr, where the exponent r value 3.627 estimated on 27 ENFRP plots) was fitted to regression height HDq. We recommend using the dominant tree selection method for measuring stand height in juvenile stands. Our results indicate that the ratio of dominant trees k and stand component cluster dominant height Hk are adequate for calculating stand height in young stands.
Key words: height distribution, mean height, dominant height, Scots pine, Norway spruce, Silver birch

 Ots, K., Mandre, M., Pärn, H., Kask, R. and Pikk, J. 2009. Changes in the Allocation of Nutrients and Biomass in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Canopy in an Area of Cement Industry in Northeast Estonia.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 237-247.

The study was carried out in selected stands in the Northeast Estonian industrial region (cement dust pollution). A total of 4 Pinus sylvestris stands with similar natural characteristics were studied in 2005. Emissions from the cement plant have decreased several times during the last ten years. The long-term impact of cement dust and alkalisation of the environment complicate mineral nutrition, disbalance the mineral composition and influence the growth of trees. Vertical gradients of nutrients and their ratios in canopies varied depending on the alkalisation of soil and the level of dust pollution in the past. Reduced N and increased K, Ca and Mg concentrations in needles were characteristic of pines in the heavily polluted areas. The stimulation growth of pine needles 2.5 and 5 km E of the cement plant may be a sign of a positive effect of reduced doses of cement dust in soil.
Key words: alkaline dust pollution, canopy layer, needles, nutrients, Pinus sylvestris, soil

 Moser, W.K. and Nelson, M.D. 2009. Windstorm Damage in Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (Minnesota, USA): Evaluating Landscape-level Risk Factors.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 248-254.

Ecosystem management requires an understanding of disturbance processes and their influence on forests. One of these disturbances is damage due to severe wind events. In an ideal model, assessing risk of windstorm damage to a forested ecosystem entails defining tree-, stand-, and landscape-level factors that influence response and recovery. Data are not always available for all three scales, but a wealth of geospatial datasets provides consistent opportunities for analysis at the landscape level. This paper examines landscape-level factors that influenced tree damage from a 1999 windstorm in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness in northern Minnesota, USA. A geospatial analysis was conducted using a suite of data variables derived from land cover, topographic, and climatic datasets. Land type association, distance to the nearest lake, and elevation were the most significant factors influencing wind storm damage. These variables highlight the importance of exposure to the wind as determinants of damage, reflecting the severity of this particular storm.
Key words: Landscape, windstorm, blowdown, risk, wilderness, Minnesota USA

 Sibul, I., Ploomi, A. and Voolma, K. 2009. Influence of Neem oil on the Large Pine Weevil Hylobius abietis L. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae).   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 255-261.

The large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), is the most important pest affecting boreal and temperate conifer forest regenerations in Europe and Asia. Weevils feed on the bark of newly planted coniferous trees causing seedling mortality, stem deformation, and reduced growth. The loss of seedlings without synthetic pesticide treatment may be very high during the first 2–3 years after planting. Having regarded to environmental protection the natural insecticides like neem formulations could replace the chemical control. The effects of natural cold-pressed neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) oil (biopreparation NEEM EC (10 000 ppm azadirachtin) produced by the Indian Neem Tree Company) on the maturation feeding of H. abietis was tested in laboratory and field experiments. NEEM EC was tested at concentrations of 2% and 10%. Feeding on food sources treated with neem oil was significantly depressed in laboratory choice tests. A strong antifeedant effect (antifeedant index (AFI) = 0.35–0.62) was revealed for both sexes depending on the concentration of neem oil. In field test, during the whole season weevils damaged the treated 4-year-old Norway spruce seedlings significantly less (< 50%) than untreated control plants (100%).
Key words: antifeedant, biopreparation, Estonia, Hylobius abietis, NEEM EC, neem oil

 Vahter, T. and Kaimre, P. 2009. Method for Evaluation of Moose Damage in Cultivated Pine Forests of Estonia.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 262-267.

In 2006, the Estonian Private Foresters Union made a statement expressing concern about damage caused by moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), which hinder reforestation and other silvicultural investments. Forest owners believe that a financial compensation mechanism for the ungulate damages should be implemented. The aim of the study was to create, test and specify a new ungulate damage assessment and evaluation methodology which could be used in compensation procedure. The methodologies from some neighbouring countries were studied to take advantage of their experience. The main differences of a proposed ungulate damage assessment methodology from prior methodologies are a simplified damage classification table and the opportunity to collect information about fresh and old damaged trees and stands. The field study was carried out in 18 pine stands of Aegviidu state forest district. The variability of ungulate damage on the test area ranged from the highest number of 5,200 trees per hectare to the smallest number of 150 trees; there were 150 and 3,150 healthy trees on the same sample plots, respectively. Financial loss depends on the number of damaged trees and the age of the damaged stand. Average loss per hectare was 99 EUR (1,556 EEK) in the case of fresh ungulate damage and 293 EUR (4,584 EEK) per hectare where fresh and old damage were summarized. Damage class classification tables were compared with Latvian, Lithuanian, and Finnish damage classification tables. There was strong correlation between the results (Pearson correlation was higher than 0.9); the strongest one was between Latvian and Estonian damage classification tables, r = 0.99, respectively. The estimated damage according to Finnish and Lithuanian damage classification tables was significantly (p<0.05) smaller than those of Estonian and Latvian damage classification tables indicated.
Key words: moose, ungulate damage evaluation, financial value of damage, Estonia

 Marozas, V., Pėtelis, K., Brazaitis G. and Baranauskaitė, J. 2009. Early Changes of Ground Vegetation in Fallow Deer Enclosure.  Baltic Forestry, 15(2): 268-272(Brief Report).

The aim of the study was to examine the influence of enclosed fallow deer on forest vegetation, undergrowth, herb cover and mosses. Investigations were carried out in fallow-deer enclosure at Anyksciai State Forest Enterprise of Mikieriai forest district in north eastern part of Lithuania. Three permanent sample plots were set up in the enclosure. An area of each sample plot was 100 m2. Each sample plot was divided into 25 record subplots (2x2 sq.m area). In 2005 and 2007 in these subplots undergrowth trees, shrubs were counted, species composition and percentage projection cover for each species of dwarf shrubs, herbaceous plants and mosses were also determined. We used non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare vegetation projection cover and amount of saplings and shrubs in 2005 and 2007. Results showed that average projection cover of undergrowth trees, shrubs, herbs and dwarf shrubs decreased. Average projection cover of Calamagrostis arundinacea, Carex digitata, Deschampsia cespitosa, Fragaria vesca, Luzula pilosa, Maianthemum bifolium, Mycelis muralis, Oxalis acetosella, Rubus idaeus and Vaccinium myrtillus decreased. Average projection cover of mosses increased near the feeder, while it remained unchanged further from the feeder. During 3 year period of fallow deer settlement the impact of fallow deer in enclosure was strongest on undergrowth trees and shrubs, slightly less impact was on herbaceous cover and the least impact was observed on mosses.
Key words: herbs, projection cover, undergrowth, ungulatea

 Belova, O. 2009. Lithuanian Summaries.  Baltic Forestry 15 (2): 274-279.

Kangur, A., Belova, O., Voolma, K. ir Jõgiste, K. 2009. Prieštaringi veiksniai, sukeliantys trikdžius miško ekosistemose: stebėjimai ir eksperimentai.   Baltic Forestry 15 (2): 139-142.
Köster, K., Ilisson, T., Tukia, H., Jõgiste, K. ir Möls, T. 2009. Medžių irimo pirmalaikės pasekmės vėjavartų pažeistų miškų dvejuose plotuose Rytų Estijoje.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 143-150.
Sims, A., Kangur, A., Hordo, M., Kiviste, A., Jõgiste, K and Gadow, K.v.K. 2009. Miško trikdžių sukelti augimo pokyčiai medynuose dėl nereguliarių matavimų pertraukų eksperimentinėje mokomojoje urėdijoje Järvselja.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 151-160.
Zielonka, T., Holeksa, J. ir Malcher, P. 2009. Trikdžių atvejai mišriame Larix decidua – Picea abies miške Tatruose, Vakarų Karpatuose – parengtinė rekonstrukcija.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 161-167.
Pärn, H., Mandre, M. ir Tilk, M. 2009. Karpotojo beržo (Betula pendula Roth) ir juodalksnio (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) sėjinukų augimo pokyčiai durpžemiuose, tręštuose medžių bei durpių pelenais.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 168-176.
Lukjanova, A. ir Mandre, M. 2009. Tręšimo miško kuro pelenais poveikis paprastosios pušies (Pinus sylvestris L.) spyglių anatomijai ir lignino lokalizacija juose.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 177-185.
Kuznetsova, T., Tilk, M., Ots, K., Lukjanova, A. ir Pärn, H. 2009. Suktaspyglės pušies (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) augimas naftos skalūnų rekultivuotų karjerų, apleistų žemės ūkio ir miško žemių plotuose.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 186-194.
Hordo, M., Metslaid, S. ir Kiviste, 2009. Paprastosios pušies (Pinus sylvestris L.) radialiojo prieaugio atsakas į klimatinius veiksnius Estijoje.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 195-205.
Parro, K., Köster, K., Jõgiste, K. ir Vodde, F. 2009. Augalijos dinamika gaisrų pažeistuose miškuose: žemutinio ardo augalijos viršaujančių rūšių atsakas.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 206-215.
Kardakov, A., Kiviste, A. ir Peterson, U. 2009. Pagrindinių veiksnių, veikiančių spinduliuotės reikšmių kaitą mišrių miškų atsikuriančiose kirtavietėse, įvertinimas pagal Landsat TM žiemos palydovines nuotraukas.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 216-225.
Padari, A., Metslaid, S., Kangur, A., Sims, A. ir Kiviste, A. 2009. Žėlinių vidutinio aukščio modeliavimas - Järvselja (Estija) pavyzdys.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 226-236.
Ots, K., Mandre, M., Pärn, H., Kask, R. ir Pikk, J. 2009. Maistmedžiagių ir biomasės pasiskirstymo pasikeitimai paprastosios pušies (Pinus sylvestris L.) lajoje cemento gamyklos teritorijoje šiaurės rytų Estijoje.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 237-247.
Moser, K.W. ir Nelson, M.D. 2009. Audros pažeidimai Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (Minesotos valstija, JAV): rizikos veiksnių įvertinimas kraštovaizdžio lygmenyje.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 248-254.
Sibul, I., Ploomi, A. ir Voolma, K. 2009. Nimbamedžių aliejaus poveikis didžiajam pušiniam straubliukui Hylobius abietis L. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae).   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 255-261.
Vahter, T. ir Kaimre, P. 2009. Briedžių daromos įveistiems pušynams žalos įvertinimo metodas Estijoje.   Baltic Forestry, 15 (2): 262-267.
Marozas, V., Pėtelis, K., Brazaitis G. ir Baranauskaitė, J. 2009. Ankstyvieji augalijos pokyčiai danielių aptvare.  Baltic Forestry, 15(2): 268-272(Trumpas pranešimas).


 Pliūra, A., Ruņģis, D. and Baliuckas, V. 2009. Population Structure of Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur L.) in Lithuania Based on Analysis of Chloroplast DNA Haplotypes and Adaptive Traits. Baltic Forestry, 15 (1): 2-12.

Present climate change and increased amplitude of its variation, increasing damages of pedunculate oak stands and plantations caused by spring frosts, fungi and insect outbreaks, threatens the survival of populations and rises the concern for gene conservation and tree breeding. This study aimed at defining the role of postglacial migration routes and origin of populations on population structure and genetic variation in relation to possibilities for genetic adaptation for uncertain future climate, gene conservation and tree breeding. The PCR-RFLP analysis of chloroplast DNA of samples from 7 trees from each of 29 Lithuanian pedunculate oak populations revealed three distinct groups of populations. East Lithuanian populations Semeliškės (Trakai, Dūkštas and Paežeriai (Vilnius) and Ignalinos belong to the cpDNA haplotype 2 from C lineage that migrated to Lithuania from South Italian glacial refuge zone. Haplotype 7 from A lineage of the northern Balkans origin dominates in Central-South Lithuania, while haplotypes 5 and 6 from A lineage originating from the South-East Balkans are typical for West-North Lithuanian populations. This haplotype distribution in Lithuania well corresponds to the oak provenance regions that have been defined based on oak stands productivity and morphologic traits and on eco-climatic parameters of geographic regions. It indicates that separate migration routes of pedunculate oak from different ice age refuge populations across Lithuania contributed to formation of large scale patchy geographical structure, provenance regions in Lithuania and probably reflect features of former ice age populations that survived in refuge zones in southern Europe. However, no similarities were found with population structure that was defined by analysis of phenology, most important adaptive trait. The latest was probably conditioned by adaptive processes that modified the features of populations. The Jūrava, Bijutiškis, Siesikai, Kulūpėnai, Gustonys and Seirijai populations consists of genotypes of three cpDNA haplotypes which indicate that these stands were established artificially and with mixture of seeds from different populations. While populations with predominance of the haplotype 2 or 7 or combination of the haplotypes 5 and 6 can be considered as autochthonous. The coefficient of genetic variation of adaptive traits was from 10.8 to 32.3% and varied in different populations from 0 to 51.8 % thus reflecting differing adaptation possibilities of populations. However the certain amount of additive genetic variation of adaptive traits cannot be attributed to particular cpDNA haplotype. The identified comparatively large chloroplast DNA haplotype diversity and genetic variation of adaptive traits suggests that species have a potential for genetic adaptation to changes of climate and environment and indicate good possibilities for gene conservation and tree breeding in Lithuania when using the Multiple Population Breeding System.
Key words: Quercus robur, population structure, cpDNA haplotype, genetic variation, adaptive traits

 Žiauka, J. and Kuusienė, S. 2009. Plant Hormone Gibberellin Induces Decline of Viability in Isolated Larch Shoot Buds.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 13-22.

The development of larch (Larix sp.) short shoots in vitro was investigated using isolated axillary buds. The explants were collected from two mature larch trees possessing different genotypes: 30-year old European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) and 42-year old hybrid larch (Larix kaempheri Carr. x Larix decidua Mill.) derived after crossing between Japanese larch and European larch. Isolated short shoot buds were planted onto MS nutrient medium supplied with distinct plant growth regulators. The negative effect of some kinds of plant hormones was noted. Gibberellins GA3 and, especially, GA4/7 caused strong decline of viability in isolated shoot primordia. Negative influence of auxin indole acetic acid was also noted, though in less extensive rate. The explants of the investigated hybrid larch tree were far more resistant to negative effect of these plant hormones than the explants collected from the European larch tree. The certain role of developing primordia of axial needles in stimulation of chlorophyll loss was confirmed in European larch explants. Cytokinin zeatin when supplied to the nutrient medium together with gibberellin significantly promoted the negative effect of gibberellin (but this effect of zeatin was noted only in European larch explants). It was also confirmed that in vitro developed larch shoots can act on new-planted explants from a distance if they share the same space for gas interchange (in vitro). Short shoots previously treated with auxin or gibberellin were significantly more sufficient for the induction of needle browning on newly developing shoots that shared the common space for gas interchange. The synergistic effect of gibberellin and other plant hormones, including gaseous plant growth regulator ethylene is under discussion.
Key words: axillary bud, explant development, in vitro culture, needle browning, plant hormones, short shoot

 Zolubas, P., Negron, J. and Munson, A.S. 2009. Modelling Spruce Bark Beetle Infestation Probability.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 23-27.

Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) risk model, based on pure Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand characteristics in experimental and control plots was developed using classification and regression tree statistical technique under endemic pest population density. The most significant variable in spruce bark beetle infestation risk model was spruce basal area. Model, good enough for forest management practices, rate spruce stands to: a) stands of low bark beetle risk (probability of infestation p=20%) – basal area of spruce less than 17.8 m² /ha; b) stands of moderate bark beetle risk (p=55%) – spruce basal area greater than 17.8 but less then 46.9 m²/ha; c) stands of high bark beetle risk (p=83%) – spruce basal area greater than 46.9 m²/ha. Further model clarification need research under epidemic spruce bark beetle condition levels.
Key words: spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, Norway spruce, Picea abies, risk, classification and regression tree model

 Kaitera, J., Tillman-Sutela, E. and Kauppi, A. 2009. Cone Bagging Hinders Cone and Rust Development of Picea abies.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 28-32.

Fruiting and sporulation of Norway spruce cone rusts were investigated in northern Finland. Pistillate flowers and developing cones were bagged at three intervals during the growing season to hinder cone infection by cone rusts, Thekopsora areolata and Chrysomyxa pirolata. The bagging of cones hindered the maturation and sporulation of T. areolata aecia in pistillate cones covered in May, although it also significantly retarded the development of these cones. The bagging fully restricted the formation of C. pirolata fruitbodies in cones. The amount of infected cones, however, was very small in general, regardless of the coverage of cones or lack of it during the growing period. In October 40 % of the unbagged cones bore T. areolata aecia and 7 % C. pirolata aecia. All of the unbagged cones developed normally and the rusts in the infected ones sporulated. Insects were more significant and common than rusts in 2007. The results indicated that rust colonization and fruiting are greatly dependent on the undisturbed development of spruce cones. The total lacking of T. areolata spermogonia in the infected cones implies that rust infection process can occur even without basidiospores. The small amount of cone scales bearing fruitbodies of both of the rust species suggests that they hinder the spread of infection of one another in the same cones.
Key words: cherry spruce rust, Chrysomyxa pirolata, cone rusts, inland spruce cone rust, Thekopsora areolata, Norway spruce

 Treinys, R., Stončius, D., Augutis, D. and Skuja, S. 2009. Breeding Habitat of the Black Stork Ciconia nigra in Lithuania: Implications for Conservation Planning.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 33-40.

A significant part of the European Black Stork population breeds in Lithuania. However, the preferences by this species for macrohabitat and microhabitat features have not been analysed statistically until now. In this study we analyzed field material collected in the last 8 years with the aim of establishing: 1) which habitat characteristics are preferred by the breeding Black Stork at macrohabitat and microhabitat scales and 2) which habitat features should be considered in the planning of Special Protected Areas for the Natura 2000 network aimed at protecting the species and the selection of set aside areas under the sustainable forestry schemes. At the macrohabitat scale Black Stork significantly preferred only dense hydrographical network. Preference for older, productive stands with greater share of broadleaved trees, nesting in forest interior and avoidance of proximity to water bodies and stands with grey alder are the most characteristic features of Black Stork microhabitat in Lithuania. A list of criteria to be used in selection of forest stands potentially suitable for Black Stork nesting was developed.
Key words: Ciconia nigra, habitat preferences, habitat use

 Vitas, A. 2009. Dendrochronological Analysis of Subfossil Fraxinus and Quercus Wood Excavated from the Kegai Mire in Lithuania.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 41-47.

Dendrochronological investigations on subfossil Fraxinus and Quercus wood found in the Kegai mire in Western Lithuania are discussed. Radiocarbon dating has revealed that the trees grew in the Middle and Late Holocene (Fraxinus approximately from 4700 BC to 1500 BC and Quercus from 3400 to 2300 BC). These trees were slow-growing (on average less than 1 mm per year) and usually with a less pronounced age trend in comparison to living trees. The subfossil Fraxinus lived longer (131 years) than modern ash trees (76 years). It is supposed that their growth was limited by humid periods. The raise of soil water induced a long downward trend in ring width of ash and oak. This was followed by an abrupt reduction (up to 51%) in ring width before the die-off of ash trees. Up to now, forest history in Lithuania relied mostly on palynological studies, thus our results extend the current knowledge on the distribution of deciduous trees in the Baltic region in different periods of the Holocene.
Key words: dendrochronology, Fraxinus, Holocene, mire, Quercus, radiocarbon, subfossil

 Pärn, H. 2009. Temporal History of Relationships between Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Growth and Mean Monthly Temperatures.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 48-57.

The study on the temporal variation in relationships between the radial growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands and mean monthly temperatures was performed using the radial growth parameters of three pine stands in Estonia and one stand in Russia. Stands were of different age and have different site conditions. The variability of the growth - temperature relationships was studied by computing and comparing the correlation coefficients between radial growth and mean monthly temperatures from January to August for 30-year, 60-year and 100-year moving periods with a step of one year. The variability, expressed by variances in the time series of the correlation coefficients, is large and decreases significantly with the lengthening of the moving period. The analysis revealed pronounced trends in the correlation coefficients in all stands. The trends were ascending when average monthly temperatures of winter and summer months were used and predominantly descending in spring months. The values of the overall average correlation coefficients decrease, not depending on the stand age, with the lengthening of the periods. Although most relationships between periodical correlation coefficients and mean monthly temperatures of the same periods were statistically significant, the best correlations were generally obtained if average monthly temperatures of periods beginning 15–25(30) years ago were used.
Key words: Tree rings, Scots pine, temperature, variability, trends

 Kuliešis, A. and Kulbokas, G. 2009. Assessment of Growing Stock Components for Data Harmonization in International Reporting. Lithuanian Case Study.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 58-64.

One of the main goals of forest inventories is estimation of the growing stock volume. Practically all countries for this purpose use the same main parameters of trees – measured stem diameters at breast height (DBH) and the height or length of tree stems, i.e. the distance between root collar and terminal bud. At the same time growing stock volume estimates differ between countries and assessments. Sometimes they do not include stumps, tops, small size stems, while sometimes they include large branches.
To unify the estimates of the growing stock volume, the most reasonable way is to follow the practice of forest inventory and to use the main inventory object, i.e. tree stem as the reference object during forest assessments. Assuming the traditions of various countries to use different national reference objects, it is suggested to estimate the volume of stumps, tops, small sized trees or large branches and to make adequate corrections in the national data. This study suggests a method of how using the data of national forest inventory and estimation models of stem volume and its separate parts to adjust national data in compliance with all European or global forest resources assessment data. Presented in the study are estimates of separate parts of stems or small sized stems that can be used as the default values for the harmonization of growing stock volume estimates in countries with similar climatic and soil conditions. The growing stock volume of Lithuanian forests, assessed using the national definition, overestimates volumes assessed using global forest resources definition by 8%, while using COST Action E43 definition – by 2%.
Key words: assessment, growing stock volume, bridging function

 Lazdinis, I., Mavsar, R., Weiss, G. and Lazdinis, M. 2009. Trends in Marketing of Non-market Forest Goods and Services in the Baltic States.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 65-76.

This study focuses on the forest sectors of the three Baltic States – Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. It aims to acquire summarized information on the state-of-the-art in the field of valuation of and compensation for non-market forest goods and services in the Baltic States as well as on the perceived potential developments in this field in the future. This study is a part of a larger research exercise commissioned by the European Commission and carried out in the 27 Member States of the European Union in 2008.
First, based on literature review, we provide a brief overview of theoretical aspects of classification of financing mechanisms. Then, using survey we acquired information from national forestry authorities regarding the state of forest goods and services and compensation for provision of non-market forest goods and services in the Baltic States. Finally, also using survey as well as the follow-up expert interviews we learn about the potentials for marketing of non-market forest goods and services in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
Our study indicates that in the Baltic States, as well as in the EU overall, biodiversity protection, climate regulation, carbon sequestration, and water regulation functions of forests are viewed as the most important non-market forest goods and services and their importance is seen to be increasing. The results also show that so far there are only few well functioning mechanisms financing provision of non-market forest goods and services. In this context, the issue of valuation also receives very little attention. We conclude that despite the existing interest, it is quite unlikely that there would be a strong increase in the use of financing mechanisms for provision of non-market forest goods and services in a foreseeable future in the three Baltic States.
Key words: Forestry, Forest management, Valuation, Financing mechanisms, Non-market forest goods and services, Baltic States

 Padari A., Muiste, P., Mitt, R. and Pärn, L. 2009. Estimation of Estonian Wood Fuel Resources.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 77-85.

To collect background information for the Long-term Development Programme of Promotion of Biomass and Bioenergy year 2007 – 2013 several studies financed by the Rural Development Foundation were carried out. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential yield of wood fuel. Conclusions about the potential yield of woody biomass were drawn up based on the results of the field experiments, modelling of forestry data and analysis of digital map layers. According to the calculations the total theoretical annual yield of Estonian forests is 8,406 thousand m³ and the share of traditional fuel wood is 963 thousand m³ (7,223 TJ). The theoretical yield of harvesting residues can be up to 1,504 thousand m³ (9,775 TJ) and the quantity of stumps up to 778 thousand m³ (5,059 TJ), incl. 480 thousand m³ of stumps from coniferous trees. The results can be used for developing measures for promoting biofuels and for spatial analysis of the future scenarios of utilization of biofuels.
Key words: biomass resources, harvesting residues, alternative resources

 Brukas, V., Linkevičius, E. and Činga, G. 2009. Policy Drivers Behind Forest Utilisation in Lithuania in 1986-2007.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 86-96.

After regaining the independence, Lithuania was in the process of making transition to the market economy, yet radical societal shifts only moderately affected Lithuanian forestry. This study evaluates the main drivers that stimulated or decreased forest utilisation. Review of numerous sources reveals that the major drivers towards increased utilisation were the economic transition and changes in the resource base. These have been counterbalanced primarily by deeply-rooted normativism, increasing environmental restrictions, economic model of State forestry and sluggish land reform. The study shows that seeking to understand the dynamics of forest utilisation it is insufficient to focus solely on the available forest inventory as is typically done in forecasts of timber removals. Instead, a holistic analysis is needed, taking into account inter alia, institutional norms and developments outside the forest sector.
Key words: Forestry, timber removals, policy drivers

 Kask, R. and Pikk, J. 2009. Second Thinning Scots pine Wood Properties in Different Forest Site Types in Estonia.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 97-104.

The properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood were studied in 27 stands growing on sites of 9 different types in Estonia. Data was collected from 184 trees aged 60-80 years. Pine wood is the strongest growing on heath and the weakest on raised bogs, its average density being 513-545 kg/m³ and 414-464 kg/m³, bending strength 97-100 MPa and 71-83 MPa and compression strength 55-56 MPa and 41-52 MPa respectively. The heartwood percent is greater in pines grown on more fertile sites. Site type is a highly generalising predictor of strength properties, so site index must also be taken into account. Contrariwise, site index may serve as a good predictor of relative strength indicators but only to a limited extent, within the range of adjoining types in the ordination scheme of forest site types.
Key words: Scots pine, site type, site index, heartwood, density, bending strength, compression strength, hardness

 Laitila, J., Kärhä, K. and Jylhä, P. 2009. Time Consumption Models and Parameters for Off- and On-road Transportation of Whole-Tree Bundles.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 105-114.

The absence of the empirical time study models and parameters for whole-tree bundle forwarding and truck transportation has been problematic when comparing the alternative supply systems for integrated pulpwood and energy wood procurement. In the present study, time consumption models were constructed for the forwarding of whole-tree bundles by applying regression analyses to empirical time study data. The time studies related to on-road transportation were focused on comparing the terminal times spent on the handling of whole-tree bundles and conventional 5-m pulpwood. The study showed that the forwarding productivity of whole-tree bundles is about double compared to conventional pulpwood and whole trees, when using a solid volume of 0.5 m³ for the whole-tree bundles. In on-road transportation, the mean loading and unloading time of whole-tree bundles per truck load was 46% higher compared to that of conventional 5-m pulpwood.
Key words: Integrated harvesting, bundling, forwarding, transporting, energy wood

 Läänelaid, A. 2009. Dendrochronological Assessment in Establishing of Felling Dates of Birch Stumps.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 115-121. (Brief Report)

Dendrochronology can be used for resolving disputes over the felling dates of a forest cut. In the case of controversy in establishing the cutting times of a forest cut, dendrochronology can provide independent evidence. A successful attempt was made to establish the felling dates of stumps of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) in southern Estonia using dendrochronology. Difficulties met were mainly due to excessive decay of the wood, which made the tree-rings in some instances undistinguishable. Despite these problems two different felling periods were revealed to an accuracy of ca. half a year. Marks of different cutting machines on stumps supported the datings obtained. Our results show that dendrochronology can usefully be applied to birches when assessing past forest management practices.
Key words: Betula pendula Roth., felling date, stump samples, tree rings, expert assessment

 Yaman, B. and Akkemik, Ü. 2009. The Use of Dendrochronological Method in Dating of Illegal Tree Cuttings in Turkey: A Case Study.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 122-126.  (Brief Report)

Every year many illegal tree cuttings occur in Turkey, and due to economic value of their timbers, the species such as Pinus nigra Arn. (Black pine) and Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) are sometimes subject to illegal cuttings. On the basis of cross-dating results, the case study aims to date the cutting years of pine trees, maker(s) of which is unknown, in Metristepe site (Bafra-Turkey). The master chronology of the 13 samples, which were dated, significantly matched to the reference chronology from the same forest (Gleichläufigkeit Value: 81 %, correlation coefficient 0.82, P < 0.001). The dating results indicate that the illegal cuttings in the scene occur mainly between the years 1990-2000. Thus, in terms of neglect of duty, the forest enterprisers, engineers and guards on duty in the period of 1990-2000 might be under criminal proceedings.
Key words: dendrochronology, forensic, illegal cutting, pine, tree ring, dating

 Belova, O. 2009. Expected Climate Change and Options for European Silviculture (ECHOES): Background and Objectives.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 127-129. (Chronicle)

The recent period is distinguished by an unavoidable and unprecedented climate change (COM (2006) 216 final). The role of forests and their links with the climate changes are described. The necessity of the knowledge of climate change impacts on forests and of a new approach of forest management, increase in the demands for information and recommendations are shown. 26 European countries have joined and signed the COST Action FP0703 ECHOES that has been started on 27/05/2008. ECHOES aims to mobilise and integrate the existing scientific knowledge for European forest policymakers and managers who have to make decisions on adaptation to and mitigation of climate change. ECHOES working groups are based on the three main points as the Action Triangle corresponding to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES 2000) and 4th Assessment Report (2007). The tasks of the each working group are described.

 Belova, O. 2009. Lithuanian Summaries.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 130-134.

Pliūra, A., Ruņģis, D. ir Baliuckas, V. 2009. Paprastojo ąžuolo (Quercus robur L.) populiacinė struktūra Lietuvoje pagal chloroplastų DNR haplotipų ir adaptacinių požymių analizę. Baltic Forestry 15(1): 2-12.
Žiauka, J. ir Kuusienė, S. 2009. Fitohormonas giberelinas skatina gyvybingumo mažėjimą izoliuotuose maumedžio ūglių pumpuruose. Baltic Forestry 15(1): 13-22.
Zolubas, P., Negron, J. ir Munson, A.S. 2009. Žievėgraužio tipografo infestacijos modeliavimo galimybė.  Baltic Forestry 15(1): 23-27.
Kaitera, J., Tillman-Sutela, E. ir Kauppi, A. 2009. Įpakavimas į maišus trukdo paprastosios eglės Picea abies kankorėžių ir rūdinių grybų vystymąsi.  Baltic Forestry 15(1): 28-32.
Treinys, R., Stončius, D., Augutis, D. ir Skuja, S. 2009. Juodojo gandro Ciconia nigra veisimosi buveinės Lietuvoje: rekomendacijos apsaugos planavimui.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 33-40.
Vitas, A. 2009. Subfosilinės uosio ir ąžuolo medienos, iškastos iš Kegų pelkės Lietuvoje, dendrochronologinė analizė.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 41-47.
Pärn, H. 2009. Paprastosios pušies (Pinus sylvestris L.) augimo ir vidutinių mėnesio temperatūrų sąveikos kaita laiko atžvilgiu.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 48-57.
Kuliešis, A. ir Kulbokas, G. 2009. Medienos tūrio įvertinimo suvienodinimas tarptautinėje apskaitoje. Lietuvos tyrimai.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 58-64.
Lazdinis, I., Mavsar, R., Weiss, G. ir Lazdinis, M. 2009. Neprekinių miško produktų ir paslaugų rinkos tendencijos Baltijos šalyse.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 65-76.
Padari A., Muiste, P., Mitt, R. ir Pärn, L. 2009. Estijos medienos kuro išteklių įvertinimas.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 77-85.
Brukas, V., Linkevičius, E. ir Činga, G. 2009. Miškanaudą lemiantys veiksniai Lietuvoje, 1986-2007 m.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 86-96.
Kask, R. ir Pikk, J. 2009. Viduramžių pušynų paprastosios pušies medienos savybės skirtinguose miško tipuose Estijoje.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 97-104.
Laitila, J., Kärhä, K. ir Jylhä, P. 2009. Viso medžio ryšulių ištraukimo ir transportavimo laiko sąnaudų modeliai ir jų reikšmės.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 105-114.
Läänelaid, A. 2009. Dendrochronologinis įvertinimas, nustatant kirtimo laiką pagal beržo kelmus.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 115-121. (Trumpas pranešimas)
Yaman, B. ir Akkemik, Ü. 2009. Dendrochronologinio metodo taikymas nustatant neteisėtų kirtimų laiką Turkijoje: atvejo tyrimas.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 122-126. (Trumpas pranešimas)
Belova, O. 2009. Laukiama klimato kaita ir pasirinktys Europos miškų ūkyje (ECHOES): pagrindai ir tikslai.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 127-129. (Kronika)


 Sutinen, S. and Saarsalmi, A. 2008. Needle Structure in Relation to Boron Fertilization in Picea abies (L.) Karst. Stands Suffering from Growth Disturbance.   Baltic Forestry 14 (2): 98-102.

Bushy growth, a typical symptom of boron (B) deficiency, has caused enormous economical losses in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands in extensive areas in eastern central Finland, and thus has created a need to determine ways of protecting forest health and productivity. To find out if microscopy could have potential for a diagnostic tool of B deficiency before visible damage, B concentrations, number of sclerenchyma cells earlier connected to B availability, and the area of central cylinder earlier connected to water availability, were studied in the current needles from about 30-year-old mature healthy (H) and damaged (D) spruce trees in autumn of B fertilization and two years later in eastern central Finland. The treatments, given on 15-17 May 2000, were:no fertilization (0), B supply (B; 2.0 kg B ha¨¹ as borax), B+P supply (B+P; 2.0 kg B ha¨¹ and 40 kg P ha¨¹ as superphosphate) and N supply (N; 200 kg N ha¨¹ as urea). The needle B concentrations significantly increased in the trees given B, and were higher in the needles from healthy (H) trees compared to those from damaged (D ) trees. This difference reduced by the third autumn indicating recovery of the roots of the trees, which showed recovery of shoots in earlier study. The area of the central cylinder reflected water availability during needle development. The number of sclerenchyma cells was low in needles from 0 (no fertilization) and N trees and increased in trees fertilized by B and B+P. Low number of sclerenchyma cells has potential for diagnose the B deficiency, but more background knowledge about the effects of other stress factors is still needed.
Key words: boron deficiency, bushy growth, light microscopy, needle, Norway spruce

 Erlickytė, R. and Vitas, A. 2008.Influence of Climatic and Anthropogenic Factors on the Radial Growth of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Baltic Forestry 14 (2):103-109.

The results of long-term dendrochronological investigation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growth and condition in the impact zone of one of the biggest air pollution sources in Lithuania as cement plant ′Akmenes Cementas′ are presented. Conifers are especially sensitive to environmental pollution. As an anatomical indicator of tree vitality, annual radial increment of trees was examined. The dynamics of annual radial increment is influenced by the main climatic parameters (air temperature and amount of precipitation) as well as an environmental pollution. The main attention was concentrated to assessment of the complex impact of climatic factors and industrial pollution on the radial increment of pine stands growing at different distances from the plant. Results of investigation and climate response models have shown that closest pine stands have suffered the strongest pollution impact, while the furthest pine stands were affected only by natural factors.
Key words: dendrochronological investigation, Scots pine, annual radial increment, environmental pollution, climatic factors, synergistic impact

 Vitas, A. 2008. Tree-Ring Chronology of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestrisL.) for Lithuania.  Baltic Forestry 14(2): 110-115.

The long-term Scots pine tree-ring chronology developed from historical timber and living trees from Lithuania is presented. The chronology involves dated 65 tree-ring width series (33 timber samples and 32 living trees) and runs for 516 years between 1487 and 2002. Constructed chronology shows strong trans-regional signal – high similarity to centennial pine chronologies developed for Poland, Latvia and Estonia. Pointer year analysis has revealed that colds in winter-spring and droughts in summer are the main causes for the sharp decrease of the radial growth. Five negative pointer years cannot be linked to climate events because of the lack of historical records in the pre-meteorological period.
Key words: climate, dating, pointer years, Scots pine, tree-ring chronology

 Zhuk, A., Veinberga, I., Daugavietis, M. and Ruņģis, D. 2008. Cross-species Amplification of Betula pendula Roth. Simple Sequence Repeat Markers in Alnus Species.  Baltic Forestry 14(2): 116-121.

Alnus glutinosa L. and Alnus incana L. Moench are found in natural stands throughout Latvia. Alnus species are not commercially grown in Latvia; however there is interest in utilising these species for commercial plantations due to their rapid growth rate and ability to grow in, and to improve poor quality soils. Also of interest are hybrids of these two species, as naturally occurring hybrids have been reported to be faster-growing and larger than the parent species. Molecular markers have not been widely applied or developed in Alnus species, particularly for population studies. Our aim was to identify previously developed SSR markers that could be used in Alnus, in order to investigate population structure, genetic diversity, and also to discover species-specific markers, to assist in identifying naturally occurring Alnus hybrids. We took 15 previously developed birch SSR markers, and tested these on A. glutinosa and A. incana accessions, as well as potential hybrids identified in natural forests stands. The cross-species PCR amplification success rate is high (8 from 15), however, our results show that null alleles are very likely to be a problem when using these markers in Alnus species. One of these SSR markers (L3.1) identified clear species-specific allelic separation. When this marker was applied to the morphologically identified species individuals and putative hybrids, the SSR marker results confirmed the species designations, but were not entirely correlated for the putative hybrids. It is possible that the individuals where the morphological designation did not correspond to the DNA marker species designation are not pure hybrids, but backcrosses of hybrids to one of the species. Additional species-specific markers will be required to further investigate the genetic composition of these phenotypically diverse, morphologically identified hybrids.
Key words: Alnus, SSRs, cross-species amplification, Betula

 Riepšas, E. and Straigytė, L. 2008. Invasiveness and Ecological Effects of Red Oak(Quercus rubra L.) in Lithuanian forests.  Baltic Forestry 14(2): 122-130.

The introduction of alien tree species may cause a threat to biodiversity. Introduction should not be allowed if there are doubts concerning invasiveness of the introduced species. The plantations of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in Lithuanian forests are established in 79 stands on an area of about 116 ha. However, its invasiveness has not been studied yet. The aim of the work is to ascertain the interaction between the red oak and native flora as well as to asses the expedience of growing red oak in Lithuanian forests. Red oak spreads more abundantly than common oak on less fertile sites. It has an adverse effect on the structure of local floral communities such as the number of grass species and their ocurrence degree decreases. Consequently, 11 nemoral grass species are not detected any more. The soil in the stands of red oak contains 34% less micromycetes, 20% less mineralizing and 5% less ammonifying microorganisms, than soil in the stands of common oak. It contains lower amounts of the most trace elements important for the nutrition of plants than the soil in the stands of common oak. The intensity of red oak invasiveness is higher than the mean (0.65), possible distribution level is medium (0.57), the level of adverse effect on society is lower than the mean (0.35). We ascertained that introduction of red oak in Lithuanian forests is not advantageous from ecological viewpoint.
Key words: Red Oak (Quercus rubra L.), forest, invasiveness

 Sibul, I., Kuusik, A. Luik, A. and Ploomi, A. 2008. Active Tracheal Ventilation and its Metabolic Cost in the Large Pine Weevil, Hylobius abietis(L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Baltic Forestry 14(2):131-137.

The large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.) is the major damaging insect pest in reforestation areas in coniferous forests in Europe. New control methods require deep knowledge of the ecology, behaviour and also physiology of the pest. A study of respiration pattern was conducted to determine the metabolic cost of active ventilation in adults of the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis. A volumetric-manometric respirometer was used in parallel with an infrared opto-cardiograph to record muscular contractions together with gas exchange patterns.
In the dry insect chamber, i.e. in the dehydrated conditions the pine weevil displayed discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs). Most of the DGCs were of CFV (Closed-Flutter-Ventilation) type, where bursts of carbon dioxide release (V phase) were ventilated by abdominal pumping movements. However, about 10% of the bursts in each individual were not ventilated. In the ventilated cycle the burst volume (VCO2) was about 20% greater than that of the non-ventilated cycle, suggesting a significant metabolic effect of pumping movements.
A minority (ca 10%) of dehydrated individuals exhibited DGCs of CFO (O=open) type, where pumping movements were lacking, and in these individuals the level of metabolic rate was about 20% lower than in weevils characterised by CFV cycles. The CFO cycles in H. abietis were considered as an exceptional and unfavourable event. Nevertheless, the results suggested that in individuals of H. abietis showing complete tonic immobility (CFO cycles) the levels of the true standard metabolic rate (SMR) were measured.
DGCs recorded by means of flow through method i.e. by infrared gas analyzer (IRGA), were usually recognized as signs about the existing standard metabolic rate in an insect. Our results indicated that DGCs appearing in dry air in pine weevils are a sign of standard metabolic rate only in case of CFO cycles, where muscular contractions are absent. In weevils showing CFV cycles can not be measured the level of standard metabolic rate due to the vigour active ventilation by means of abdominal pumping movements. Thus, IRGA can not be regarded as an universal method to differentiate the active and standard metabolic rates. Moreover, in parallel with respirometer must be used an actographic device, to record all body movements including abdominal pumping movements.
Key words: CFO and CFV cycles, discontinuous gas exchange cycles, DGC, Hylobius abietis, large pine weevil, standard metabolic rate

 Jelonek, T., Pazdrowski ,W. and Tomczak, A. 2008. Biometric Traits of Wood and Quality of Timber Produced in Former Farmland.  Baltic Forestry 14(2):138-148.

Investigations were conducted on 48 Scots pines grown on former farmland and under typical forest conditions in northern Poland. It was attempted in the study to determine wood quality of pines coming from former farmland and typical forest conditions, based on the relationship between biometric traits of trees and the share of sapwood and heartwood in tree stems. Moreover, the analysis included the dynamics of heartwood formation and the dependence between crown volume of trees, breast height diameter and height, and volume and share of heartwood and sapwood in tree stems. Results show that pines growing on former farmland exhibit higher dynamics of heartwood formation and a higher share of heartwood and a lower share of sapwood in stems than pines growing on typical forest soils. High values of coefficients of determination obtained for analyzed dependencies facilitate estimation of sapwood and heartwood volumes in stems of pines on the basis of their breast height diameter or crown volume.
Key words: Scots pine, former farmland, biometric traits, sapwood, heartwood

 Ovaskainen, H., Palander, T., Jauhiainen, M., Lehtimäki, J., Tikkanen, L. and Nurmi, J. 2008. Productivity of Energywood Harvesting Chain in Different Stand Conditions of Early Thinnings.  Baltic Forestry 14(2):149-154.

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stand conditions on the productivity of a harvesting machine chain in early thinning stands. The studied harvesting chain consisted of Pro Silva Ässä 810 harvester equipped with an accumulating Naarva-Grip 1600-40 felling head and Timberjack 810 forwarder. The study was implemented on two separate stands, which were divided into nine blocks; each with unique stand conditions. The stand densities of the studied blocks varied from 2,000 to 7,750 stems per hectare and average tree length on the blocks were between 5.3–9.9 meters. In these conditions the productivity in cutting varied between 4.7–8.5 m³/h. Average productivity in cutting was 5.8 m³/h. Forwarding productivity was 7.9 m³/h in average varying between 6.0–9.2 m³/h. The increase of stand density and decrease of average stem size reduced less cutting productivity than forwarding productivity compared to separate machine studies.
Key words: energy wood, multiple tree handling, accumulating felling head, whole tree harvesting, productivity

 Mizaras, S., Sadauskienė, L. and Mizaraitė, D. 2008. Productivity of harvesting machines and costs of mechanized wood harvesting: Lithuanian case study.   Baltic Forestry 14 (2): 155-162.

During the last years the demand for mechanized wood harvesting is increasing in Lithuania. Harvesting machines produced only 3.8 % of wood in state forests in 2005 and this amount increased up to 12.2 % in 2006. But productivity of harvesting machines under Lithuanian conditions also costs of mechanized wood harvesting were not studied up to now.
This study examines the productivity of harvesting machines used in Lithuania and costs of mechanized wood harvesting. The research was performed on six cutting sites. The productivity of two harvesters and two harwarders (integrated harvester-forwarder) was investigated. The harvesting machines were filmed in normal working situations and data were analyzed by time study method.
The productivity of machines ranged from 10.7 to 46.5 m³/h (solid m³ per effective hour) for study areas. The harvesting machines’ productivity in relation with stem size models were formed.
The wood harvesting costs of Timberjack 1270D harvester ranged from 8.0 to 1.7 EUR/m³ (stem size 0.1-2.0 m³) in clear cuttings and that of harwarders varied from 29.9 to 3.1 EUR/m³ for (stem size 0.1-1.0 m³). The wood harvesting costs of Sampo 1046X harvester amounted to 6.8–2.2 EUR/m³ in clear sanitary cutting and to 12.4 - 3.5EUR/m³ (stem size 0.1-0.5 m³) in selective sanitary cutting
Key words: wood production, harvesting machine, productivity, costs, time study

 Puodžiūnas, M. and Fjeld, D. 2008. Roundwood Handling at a Lithuanian Sawmill – Discrete-event Simulation of Sourcing and Delivery Scheduling.  Baltic Forestry 14(2): 163-175.

Roundwood receival and sorting are the first in a long series of operations which require coordination to ensure high capacity utilization for sawmill. Variation in these operations can also cause queuing and reduced capacity utilization for wood transporting companies and delays in measurement and payment for suppliers. Two factors – sourcing and delivery scheduling have potential for reducing variation in roundwood receival.
The aim of this study is to estimate the effects of roundwood sourcing and delivery scheduling alternatives on roundwood handling at a Lithuanian sawmill. The study was done with discrete-event simulation and focuses on the unloading and sorting operations. The model was built in the ARENA simulation package.
Based on the modeling of present delivery volumes (21,000 m³/month), better roundwood sorting and handling operations can be achieved by replacing some unfavorable import sources (giving an increase of sorter productivity from 620 to 678 m³/day) and by improved scheduling of wood arrivals (reduction of extra log handling from 34% to 21% of loads).
Based on the modeling of planned delivery volumes (30,000 m³/month), replacing unfavorable import sources with domestic supply gave an increase of sorter productivity from 697 to 901 m³/day. Improved scheduling of truck arrivals reduced the percent of loads requiring extra handling from 49% to 36% with present sourcing and from 38 % to 18 % with increase domestic sourcing. In most cases improved scheduling reduced truck waiting time by 50 %. Both additional loader capacity, improved sourcing and improved scheduling are necessary to reach the planned production volumes of the future.
Key words: sourcing, delivery scheduling, discrete-event, queuing time, intermediate storage, sorter production

 Mozgeris, G. 2008. Estimation and Use of Continuous Surfaces of Forest Parameters: Options for Lithuanian Forest Inventory. Baltic Forestry 14(2): 176-184.

Deriving of the continuous surfaces of key forest characteristics from satellite images and point-wise field forest estimates is considered in this paper as a general methodological research framework to integrate sampling based and conventional stand-wise inventory systems. Several non-parametric and parametric estimation methods (two-phase sampling with stratification, k-nearest neighbor and regression) and sources of remotely sensed data (SPOT 4 HRVIR, Landsat-5 TM, panchromatic aerial images) together with the information available from stand-wise forest inventories have been studied on a test area in Dubrava forest in the central part of Lithuania for the accuracy of pixel-level estimates of key forest characteristics. Integration of the information available from satellite images and limited number of field sample plots with the characteristics of forest compartments, derived during the conventional stand-wise inventory, reduced the root mean square errors of estimates of pixel-level forest characteristics by 9-41%. The idea to convert forest reflectance in the satellite image into the continuous surfaces of forest parameters and use such surfaces to construct spatial units corresponding to conventional forest compartments is discussed as well. The relative efficiency of segmentation, expressed by the minimization of variance of key characteristics within the forest block via delineation of compartments, improves by 13-33% if the continuous surfaces of forest parameters are used instead of original satellite image as an input.
Key words: forest inventory, satellite images, pixel-level forest characteristics, two-phase sampling, k-nearest neighbor, regression, segmentation

 Kodar, A., Kutsar, R., Lang, M., Lükk, T. and Nilson, T. 2008. Leaf Area Indices of Forest Canopies from Optical Measurements. Baltic Forestry 14(2): 185-194.

Ground-based estimates of leaf area indices (LAI) of forest canopies and understorey vegetation in Järvselja, Estonia were derived from measurements by the plant canopy analyzers LAI-2000 and hemispherical photographs as well as via allometric relations from traditional forest inventory variables from a forestry database. Regressions of LAI with the SPOT and Landsat satellite image-derived reflectance factors and combined indices were established. The LAI values correlated the best with the reduced simple ratio index defined by the red, near and middle infrard bands. The standard error of the estimate of all regressions between the LAI and satellite image-based variables is about 1.5 units or higher.
Key words: Leaf area index, forest, remote sensing

 Bāra, G. and Tuherm, H. 2008. Improvement Possibilities of Forest Land Transformation in Latvia. Baltic Forestry 14(2): 195-203.

Due to the natural and artificial afforestation of non-used agriculture land, the growth of forest areas in Latvia is much higher than their reduction in connection with land transformation. The process of change of forest land use type in Latvia is complicated, bureaucratic, time-consuming and expensive, if it is not performed with the state investment funds, state or municipal co-funding. The forest land transformation process does not threaten the increase in forest land area in future, because it is a socially economic process related to the aspiration of people to improve the quality of their living environment and not to illegal acquisition of timber. The goal of this study is to identify the main problems in process of transformation of forest land in the Republic of Latvia and gaps in legislative instruments regulating the process of change of land use type, to prepare recommendations for their elimination, to develop a methodology for calculation of compensation for the losses caused to the state as a result of destruction of natural forest environment.
Key words: forest land transformation, methodology of compensation

 Petrokas, R. 2008. Growth Vigor in Wych elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.): a Review. Baltic Forestry 14(2): 204-215.(Review Paper)

The objective of the review is to identify morphogenetic phenomena related to growth vigor in Wych elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.). It may provide guidance for the improved initial selection of the plants and planting sites, as well as strict adherence to correct planting techniques - the primary considerations in preventing dieback condition in Wych elm. An approach and framework to the research of growth vigor in Wych elm are presented relating to the concepts of apical dominance, branching architecture, branch shedding, dormancy, etc., as reported in the scientific literature on temperate and boreal woody angiosperms. Clear, healthy bark and perfect natural pruning seems to be the background for the presence of growth vigor in Wych elm. Growth vigor, i.e. resistance to biotic and abiotic stress and the ability to repair and recover from damage, is a phenomenon; hypothetically, all the factors, phenological and architectural, contributing to this phenomenon complies with the axiom of uniform stress. Finally, it must be checked in the future research of Wych elm, whether or not the adaptive stress is a consequence of highly determinate growth pattern.
Key words: apical dominance, branch shedding, branching architecture, dormancy, growth pattern, growth vigor, Wych elm

 Belova, O. and Kangur, A. 2008.VII International Workshop of SNS Network Natural Disturbance Dynamics Analysis for Forest Ecosystem Management ‘Mixed Forest Disturbances in Boreal and Temperate zone Baltic Forestry 14(2): 216-217. (Chronicle)

VII International Workshop of SNS (Nordic Forest Research Cooperation Committee) Network under the topic Mixed Forest Disturbances in Boreal and Temperate Zone was held at the Mammal Research Institute of Polish Academy of Sciences in Bialowieza, Poland, on 06 - 10th October 2008. The workshop based upon submitted contributions offered by registered participants and included opening and closing ceremonies, plenary and poster sessions, discussion session and excursions.The Workshop programme encompassed 12 oral presentations on the subtopics as Classical permanent sample plots and long-term observations for disturbance analysis; Modeling of changes in mixed forest disturbance regimes; The effect of large herbivores on forest dynamics and Ecological consequences of human disturbance in the past.

 Rečūinienė, J. 2008. The Forum of the Foresters’ Societies of Baltic Countries. Baltic Forestry 14(2): 218-219. (Chronicle)

The annual 18th Conference of the Societies of Foresters of the three Baltic countries was held in Druskininkai, Southern Lithuania, on 4-6th September 2008.The main topic of the Conference was Use of Forest Areas of the Former Soviet Military Grounds. The essential points of preserntations were underlined.

 Varnagyrytė-Kabašinskienė, I. 2008. International Scientific Conference “Climate Change and Forest Ecosystems” in Vilnius. Baltic Forestry 14(2): 220-222. (Chronicle)

Under the common idea ′European forests enrich our lives and help save the planet′, the European Forest Week has started in Europe on 20-24 October, 2008. In parallel with the series of the meetings throughout Europe, the International Scientific Conference ″Climate Change and Forest Ecosystems″ was held in Vilnius (Lithuania) on 22-23 October, 2008.The aim of the Conference was to disseminate the information and findings on the climate change and an impact on forest ecosystems in North-Eastern European countries and to advance the scientific knowledge on the forest ecosystems patterns, affected by climate change.The key topics and their main points are presented.

 Voolma, K. 2008. Recent doctoral theses from Estonia Baltic Forestry 14(2): 222.(Chronicle)

List of the recent Doctoral theses from Estonia is presented.

 Belova, O. 2008. Lithuanian Summaries. Baltic Forestry 14 (2): 223-227.

Sutinen, S. ir Saarsalmi, A. 2008. Spyglių sudėtis sąsajoje su tręšimu boru paprastosios eglės Picea abies (L.) Karst. medynuose, patyrusiuose augimo sutrikimą. Baltic Forestry 14(2): 98-102.
Erlickytė, R. ir Vitas, A. 2008. Klimato ir antropogeninių veiksnių įtaka paprastosios pušies (Pinus sylvestris L.) radialiajam prieaugiui. Baltic Forestry 14(2): 103-109.
Vitas, A. 2008. Paprastosios pušies (Pinus sylvestris L.) metinių rievių chronologija Lietuvoje. Baltic Forestry 14(2): 110-115.
Zhuk, A., Veinberga, I., Daugavietis, M. ir Ruņģis, D. 2008. Betula pendula Roth DNR mikrosatelitinių žymenų tarprūšinė amplifikacija Alnus spp. rūšių tyrimuose. Baltic Forestry 14(2): 116-121.
Riepšas, E. ir Straigytė, L. 2008. Raudonojo ąžuolo (Quercus rubra L.) invazyvumas ir ekologinis poveikis Lietuvos miškuose. Baltic Forestry 14 (2): 122-130.
Sibul, I., Kuusik, A. Luik, A. ir Ploomi, A. 2008. Pušinio strabliuko Hylobius abietis (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) aktyvi trachejų ventiliacija ir metabolinės sąnaudos. Baltic Forestry 14(2): 131-137.
Jelonek, T., Pazdrowski ,W. ir Tomczak, A. 2008. Biometrinės savybės ir medienos kokybė medžių, augusių buvusiose žemės ūkio paskirties žemėse. Baltic Forestry 14 (2): 138-148.
Ovaskainen, H., Palander, T., Jauhiainen, M., Lehtimäki, J., Tikkanen, L. ir Nurmi, J. 2008. Energetinės medienos šiuolaikinės mechanizuotos ruošos našumas skirtingomis medynų ugdymo kirtimų sąlygomis. Baltic Forestry 14 (2): 149-154.
Mizaras, S., Sadauskienė, L. ir Mizaraitė, D. 2008. . Kirtimo mašinų našumas ir mechanizuoto medynų kirtimo kaštai: Lietuvos atvejis. Baltic Forestry 14 (2): 155-162.
Puodžiūnas, M. ir Fjeld, D. 2008. Apvalios medienos priėmimas Lietuvos lentpjūvėje – tiekimo šaltinių ir tiekimo grafiko simuliavimas, naudojant diskretaus atvejo metodą. Baltic Forestry 14(2): 163-175.
Mozgeris, G. 2008. Tolydžių miško charakteristikų paviršių nustatymas ir naudojimas: galimybės Lietuvos miškų inventorizacijai. Baltic Forestry 14(2): 176-184.
Kodar, A., Kutsar, R., Lang, M., Lükk, T. ir Nilson, T. 2008. Medžių lajos lapijos paviršiaus ploto indeksas pagal optinius matavimus. Baltic Forestry 14(2): 185-194.
Bāra, G. ir Tuherm, H. 2008. Miško žemės transformacijos tobulinimo galimybės Latvijoje. Baltic Forestry 14 (2): 195-203.
Petrokas, R. 2008. Kalnines guobos (Ulmus glabra Huds.) augimo stiprumas: apžvalga. Baltic Forestry 14(2): 204-215. (Apžvalga)


 Danusevičius, D. 2008. The Hybrid Vigour from Intra-specific Crosses of Scots Pine. Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 2-6.

Cloning of the superior genotypes may efficiently exploit the hybrid vigour effect from inter-provenance crosses. The prospects are discussed by comparing the performance of the intraspecific hybrid progeny with the progeny of the autochthonous populations of Scots pine at age 23 in a field trial in Lithuania. The polycross progeny were markedly taller of better stem quality than their autochthonous counterparts. If compared with the introduced populations, the local population was the best in both wood yield and stem quality. In conclusion, the local male parent introduced by pollen mixture in a polycross markedly improved wood yield and quality of Scots pine progeny. Old provenance trials may be used to pollinate the desired foreign clones with the pollen of superior local genotypes.
Key words: clonal forestry, hybrid, polycross, provenance, Pinus sylvestris, short-term breeding

 Stankevičienė, D., Kasparavičius, J., Rudawska, M. and Iwanski. M. 2008. Studies of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Above- and Belowground in a 50-year Old Pinus sylvestris L. Forest. Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 7-15.

The assemblage structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi above- and belowground in the 50-year-old pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest was determined in this study. The community was composed of 53 species, the majority of which belonged to the genera Cortinarius, Russula, Amanita and Tricholoma. Cantharellus cibarius and Paxillus involutus were the dominant species making up the largest part of the sporocarp biomass and determining harvest in the studied forest type. Twenty ectomycorrhizal morphotypes were determined belowground. Morphanatomical analysis and PCR–RFLP were used to determine morphotypes. The maximum species richness above ground was characteristic of September while variation in diversity of ectomycorrhizal morphotypes per vegetation season was very marginal and not significant.
Key words: ectomycorrhizal fungi, sporocarps, ectomycorrhizae, pine forest

 Drenkhan, T., Hanso, S. and Hanso, M. 2008. Effect of the Stump Treatment with Phlebiopsis gigantea against Heterobasidion Root Rot in Estonia. Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 16-25.

Efficiency of the biological control agent Rotstop® against spore infection by the pathogenic basidiomycetes of the genus Heterobasidion was investigated in Estonia during two years. First, in vitro laboratory experiments were carried out for comparison of the efficiency of the basic strain of Phlebiopsis gigantea in Rotstop® with an Estonian strain of the same species against several Estonian strains of Heterobasidion spp. Preliminary laboratory tests on artificially infected wood pieces of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris were conducted, as well, for the learning of visible characteristic features of rot caused by Phlebiopsis gigantea, and the diagnostic features of Heterobasidion spp. on wood surfaces. Following experiments in forests in four Norway spruce and two Scots pine before unthinned stands, in south-eastern and north-eastern Estonia, respectively, comprised in each site as a mean 83 stumps, which were treated with the suspension of Rotstop®, and 21 stumps, which were left untreated as the control. Rotstop® had especially effectively controlled airborne infection of Heterobasidion annosum s. str. in P. sylvestris stands (average areas occupied by the fungi on treated stumps: P. gigantea, 113.3 cm² and H. annosum s. str. 0.6 cm², respectively). Noticeable natural infection by the indigenous Phlebiopsis gigantea occurred in the control stumps as well, but it was too limited to really keep the pathogen away from fresh cuttings. In spruce the preparation Rotstop® was effective (average areas 75.2 cm² and 4.3 cm², respectively), but less than in pine, possibly because of the extremely high infection level of Heterobasidion parviporum in our experimental spruce stands (up to 85 % of the number of untreated stumps).
Key words: Biological control, Rotstop® Phlebiopsis gigantea, Heterobasidion spp., Scots pine, Norway spruce.

 Cedro, A. and Lamentowicz, M. 2008. The Last Hundred Years’ Dendroecology of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) on a Baltic Bog in Northern Poland: Human Impact and Hydrological Changes. Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 26-33.

The study was aimed at determining age of the trees growing on the cupola of the Stążki raised bog, at elucidating anthropogenic influences on the water level in the bog, and at exploring effects of climatic factors on the Scots pine tree-ring growth. Samples were collected, with Pressler’s bores, from 22 Scots pines and from a single downy birch. Tree-ring widths, measured to 0.01 mm, were used to compile – based on the classic dating methods – 143-year-long (1862-2004) ST chronologies. The mean annual ring growth was found to amount to 0.87 mm. The chronologies obtained served as a basis with which to analyse signature years and response functions. Dendroclimatological analyses produced no unequivocal and statistically significant results: the signature years and response function analyses failed to identify a dominant factor and to indicate unambiguously a period during which the weather components studied exerted a decisive effect. Because of that, no climatic reconstructions were carried out. The ring growth of the trees examined was found to be primarily affected by changes in the water level, related mainly to anthropogenic activities. The bog evolution (drying-out and Scots pine invasion) was reconstructed with this assumption in mind. A mass appearance of trees on the bog was dated at the last decade of the 19th century. It was assumed to be triggered by draining operations carried out to lower the water level so that peat could be cut. As a result, conditions amenable for the bog surface to be colonised by Scots pine seedlings were created. The data obtained are important from the standpoint of raised bog conservation; they demonstrate that pine forests growing on raised bogs are not always the final stage of succession, but provide evidence of disturbed bog hydrology and serve as an indicator of a perturbed bog ecosystem.
Key words: peatland, Baltic bog, dendrochronology, tree-ring width, Pinus sylvestris L., environmental reconstructions.

 Läänelaid, A., Sohar, K. and Meikar, T. 2008. Present State and Chronology od Oak in an Oak Forest in Saaremaa Island, Estonia. Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 34-43.

The Loode oak forest in Saaremaa Island has long been used as meadow and pastureland, but there were no data about the age and course of radial growth of the big oaks. Age of 40 pedunculate oaks (Quercus robur L.) were assessed from the cumulative increment curves. The oldest sampled tree is about 500 years old. Correlation of radial increment of oaks with climate data was investigated, also in temporal course. January temperature has a significant negative correlation and June precipitation has a significant positive correlation and in addition, since 1960-ies April temperature has a significant negative correlation with the oaks’ growth. The climate data of pointer years show that the combinations of affecting factors may be various. The investigation cannot confirm the thesis of forest decline in the Loode oak forest. The reasons for absence of young oaks probably come from the centuries-long management practice of the area.
Key words:pedunculate oak, radial increment, age assessment, pointer years, Loode, Saaremaa.

 Baltrušaitis, A. 2008. Modelling of Frame Saw Blade Abrasion in the Kerf in Sawing Softwood Logs. Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 44-49.

The effect of friction and abrasion of frame saw blades side planes in a kerf when sawing pine and spruce sawlogs in the top end diameter classes’ interval 18-40 cm was modelled accordingly to resultant saw blade thickness and surface hardness. Gradually diminishing saw blade thickness eliminates initial surface hardness of cold rolled strip steel. Hardness and thickness of new and used frame saw blades interrelationships on the abrasion zone of frame saw blades were discussed. Phenomena’s of thickness diminution were established showing good correlation between thickness and surface hardness. The effect of asymptotic stabilization of hardness after certain depth of wear on saw blade side planes has been stated. Further recovery of surface hardness alongside the blade length seemed to be related to the typical sawlog diameter classes’ distribution (18-40 cm) at the Lithuanian frame sawmills.
Key words:modelling saw blade, abrasion, wear, hardness, sawlog.

 Nawrot, M., Pazdrowski, W. and Szymański, M. 2008. Radial and Axial Variability of the Proportion of Sapwood and Heartwood in Stems of European Larch (Larix decidua Mill.). Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 50-57.

In this study an attempt was made to define a diversity in radial and axial share of sapwood and heartwood in stems of European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) grown under different forest site conditions.
The larch trees, which had grown in more fertile habitat as a fresh mixed forest site, was characterized by a bigger share of heartwood, and ipso facto a smaller share of sapwood than trees, which had grown in the conditions of coniferous fresh mixed forest site.
Trees from the age class IV (from 61 years old to 80 years old) distinguished themselves by lower share of sapwood than the larch trees which represented V age class (from 81 years old to 100 years old). This relationship was observed in both investigated forest site types. It was observed radial and axial irregularity of the share of both types of wood in stems the larch from investigated forest type sites and in age classes in connection with tree position in tree stand. On the share of sapwood and heartwood in tree stem and the velocity of heartwood making process probably can have influence the size and efficiency of transpiration, tree position in stand, as well as forest site conditions in which trees are grown.
Distinct influence of physiologically active tree crown on the sapwood zone in tree stems confirmed by calculation of the coefficient of correlation “r” characterized the relationship between the width of sapwood zone, and the volume and the area of tree crown projection.
Key words: European larch (Larix decidua), sapwood, heartwood, fresh coniferous mixed forest site (BMśw), fresh forest mixed site (LMśw)

 Soo, T. and Meikar, T. 2008. Higher Forestry Education in Estonia and Latvia before 1920. Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 58-65.

The principal aim of this study is to analyze the opportunities of receiving higher forestry education in Estonia and Latvia before 1920. The study relies on archival documents and published materials originating from the 19th century and from the beginning of the 20th century. The history of higher forestry education in Estonia and Latvia dates back to the beginning of the 19th century. During the 19th century Tartu University and the forestry classes of Jelgava and Riga Polytechnic Schools (Institute) successively provided forestry education. The study characterizes the organizational and theoretical aspects of forestry education in Tartu, Jelgava and Riga and analyzes the opportunities of receiving higher forestry education in Estonia and Latvia before 1920, and the connections, similarities and differences in the education provided.
Key words: higher forestry education, history of Estonian forestry, history of Latvian forestry, Tartu University, Jelgava Gymnasium, Riga Polytechnic Institute

 Brukas, V. and Churski, M. 2008. Intensive Forest Researcher Training and its Internationalisation in the Baltic Sea Region. Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 66-74.

Based on survey of PhD training coordinators, the paper examines the status of doctoral education at universities dealing with higher forest education in the Baltic Sea region. The primary attention is given to intensive courses and possibilities for joint international training. In total, the survey found around 450 PhD students. In 2005, 39 intensive courses, involving at least 5 students, were organised at the surveyed faculties. 15 courses dealt with topics related specifically to forestry, revealing that an average PhD student has a very limited offer of specialised courses directly connected to the thesis work. Low number of students is seen as a primary hindrance for more intensive course activity at national faculties, while the lack of time and financial incentives for teachers hinder organisation of international PhD courses. Overall, the lack of systematic approach to doctoral forest education is observed. Survey respondents are supportive to joint researcher training activities at the regional level.
Key words: Baltic countries, doctoral forestry education, intensive courses, internationalisation, Nordic countries, Russia

 Kawata, Y., Ozolinš, J. and Andersone-Lilley, Ž. 2008. An Analysis of the Game Animal Population Data from Latvia. Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 75-86.

Large carnivores such as the wolf (Canis lupus) and the lynx (Lynx lynx) have never been eradicated in Latvia and their numbers particularly increased from the early 1970s onwards, which brought some conflict between the large carnivores and human interests. Therefore, it has always been a challenge for both gamekeepers and conservationists to reveal relationships between ungulates and large carnivores as well as to figure out relevant implications for their management.
The purpose of this paper is to reveal the above-mentioned relationships using statistical data. Fortunately, statistics on the abundance and hunting bag size of some game species in Latvia have been collected since the early 20th century. The study uses these data to examine four types of relationship within the period of 1958 - 2005: (1) prey-prey relationships between the population estimates of moose (Alces alces), red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), (2) predator-prey relationships in the above four ungulate species, wolf and lynx; (3) relationships between the estimated numbers of wolf and lynx; (4) relationships among hunting bags in some of the species listed above. We applied unit root test to check if our statistical results suffered from the spurious correlation. We used regression analysis (dynamic OLS and generalized least square) to reveal statistical findings and examine them from the ecological point of view in order to check the validity of our results.
Our statistical results suggest that (1) For the red deer, roe deer is a competitor and vice versa. For the roe deer, moose is also a competitor in addition to the red deer. For the moose, red deer is a competitor. (2) For the wolf, red deer, roe deer and moose are prey whereas for the lynx, only roe deer is prey. (3) For lynx, wolf is a competitor, but for the wolf, lynx is not. (4) The elasticity of hunting with respect to population size is 2.55%, 0.91%, 2.14, 0.42% and 0.82%, for roe deer, red deer, moose, wolf and lynx respectively. Most of the results are consistent with empirical findings from the field.
Key words: population dynamics; game statistics; game animals, spurious correlation

 Gerasimov, Y. and Karjalainen, T. 2008. Development Program for Improving Wood Procurement in Northwest Russia Based on SWOT Analysis. Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 87-92.

Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of wood procurement in Northwest Russia have been analysed from Finnish forest industry perspective and development program for further improvement has been provided. The SWOT analysis of a wood procurement system, where round-wood is conveyed from a stump to a customer mill gate by means of technical and commercial operations that include wood purchasing, logging, storing and logistics, is conducted in this study. The focus for this analysis is in the Northwest regions of the Russian Federation where the Finnish forest industry’s purchasing operations and investments in wood processes are concentrated. This paper describes potential technological, economical, social and environmental impacts on future developments of wood procurement. Issues have been classified and those key issues related to wood supply planning, wood sources, wood markets, logistics, harvesting, environmental responsibility, human resources and social responsibility have been highlighted. Results of the analysis may be used in decision-making.
Key words: Russia, forest industry investments, trade of industrial round-wood, wood harvesting, environmental responsibility, social responsibility

 Belova, O. 2008. Lithuanian Summaries. Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 93-96.

Danusevičius, D. 2008. Gautų vidurūšiniu kryžminimu paprastosios pušies hibridų gyvybingumas. Baltic Forestry, 14(1): 2-6.
Stankevičienė, D., Kasparavičius, J., Rudawska, M. ir Iwanski. M. 2008. Ektomikorizinių grybų tyrimai 50 metų am·iaus pušynų paviršiniame ir apatiniame dirvožemio sluoksniuose.
Baltic Forestry, 14(1): 7-15.
Drenkhan, T., Hanso, S. ir Hanso, M. 2008. Šaknų apdorojimo Phlebiopsis gigantea prieš šakninę pintį Heterobasidion spp. rezultatai Estijoje. Baltic Forestry, 14(1): 16-25.
Cedro, A. ir Lamentowicz, M. 2008. Paprastosios pušies dendroekologija Šiaurės Lenkijos aukštapelkės durpyne per paskutinį šimtmetį: žmogaus poveikis ir hidrologiniai pokyčiai.Baltic Forestry, 14(1): 26-33.
Läänelaid, A., Sohar, K. ir Meikar, T. 2008. Ąžuolų, augančių ąžuolyne Saarema saloje Estijoje, esama būklė ir chronologija.Baltic Forestry, 14(1):34-42.
Baltrušaitis, A. 2008. Pjūklo geležtės nudilimo modeliavimas įpjovoje spygliuočių pjautinųjų rąstų pjovimo metu. Baltic Forestry, 14(1): 43-48.
Nawrot, M., Pazdrowski, W. ir Szymański, M. 2008. Europinio maumedžio (Larix decidua Mill.) kamienų balanos ir branduolinės medienos dalies radialinis ir ašinis kintamumas.
Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 49-56.
Soo, T. ir Meikar, T. 2008. Aukštasis miškinikystės mokslas Estiojoje ir Latvijoje iki 1920 metų. Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 57-64.
Brukas, V. ir Churski, M. 2008. Intensyvios miškų mokslų studijos ir jų internacionalizavimas Baltijos jūros regione.Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 65-73.
Kawata, Y., Ozolinš, J. ir Andersone-Lilley, Ž. 2008. Latvijos medžiojamųjų gyvūnų populiacinių rodiklių analizė. Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 74-84.
Gerasimov, Y. ir Karjalainen, T. 2008. Aprūpinimo mediena išvystymo ir tobulinimo programa šiaurės vakarų Ruijoje, pagrįsta SWOT (SSGG) analize.Baltic Forestry, 14 (1): 85- .


 Konttinen, K., Luoranen, J. and Rikala, R. 2007. Growth and Frost Hardening of Picea abies Seedlings after Various Night Length Treatments.   Baltic Forestry 13 (2): 140 - 148.

We studied the effects of varying night length (NL: 16 h, 12 h or 10 h and ambient as control) treatments of three weeks duration on the morphology, shoot water content (WC) and frost hardiness (FH) of first-year Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings of northern (64° 40‘) and southern (60 ° 40‘) Finnish origins, and of first- and second-year Norway spruce seedlings of local origin at a nursery in Central Finland (62° 38‘). We also studied the height growth of the seedlings after planting. NL was negatively associated with the increment of stem diameter and root dry mass of seedlings. The NL treatments increased FH from 4 to 7°C compared with control seedlings, but differences between NL treatments were small. No consistent relationship between WC and FH was found. NL treatments had only a minor effect on seedling height growth after planting. In conclusion, the shorter (10-12 h) night is recommended for use in a blackout treatment.
Key words: frost hardening, night length, Norway spruce, origin, Picea abies, photoperiod, short-day treatment

 Saarsalmi, A. and Levula, T. 2007. Wood ash Application and Liming: Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Growth of Scots Pine Transplants. Baltic Forestry 13 (2): 149 - 157.

The effects of varying doses of wood ash (2.5 and 5.0 t ha¨¹) and limestone (1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 t ha¨¹) on soil chemical properties and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) transplants on an acidic forest soil were investigated in a reforestation area in eastern Finland. The ash and limestone were applied either on the soil surface or were mixed into the topsoil using disc ploughing. All the treatments were replicated three times. Soil samples were taken from the unploughed plots only. Wood ash and liming had reduced acidity in both the organic layer and 0-10 cm mineral soil layer for 15 years after application. The pH increase in the organic layer was 1.6 and 2.7 pH units on the plots treated with 2.5 and 5 t ha¨¹ of ash, and 0.7, 1.0 and 1.7 units on the plots treated with 1, 2 and 4 t ha¨¹ of lime, respectively. Depending on the dose, ash application resulted in a significant 41 to 47% increase and liming a 34 to 46% increase in the base saturation of the organic layer. Surface broadcast of ash and lime significantly increased height growth. On the ash plots the mean height after 15 years was 24-27% and on the limed plots 14-23% greater than on the control plots. There were also signs of an increase in breast height diameter caused by ash application and liming. Liming or ash application after being mixed into the surface soil by ploughing had no effect on height growth of the pines, except for the highest lime dose. Instead, ploughing as such had a significant increasing effect both on survival and height growth of the trees.
Key words: Base saturation, Cation exchange capacity, Pinus sylvestris, Reforestation, Soil acidity

 Ozolinčius, R., Varnagirytė-Kabašinskienė, I., Armolaitis, K., Gaitnieks, T., Buožytė, R., Raguotis, A., Skuodienė, L., Aleinikovienė, J. and Stakėnas, V. 2007. Short Term Effects of Compensatory Wood Ash Fertilization on Soil, Ground Vegetation and Tree Foliage in Scots Pine Stands. Baltic Forestry, 13 (2): 158-168.

A wood ash experiment was set up in a 38-year-old Scots pine stand (forest type - Pinetum vacciniosum) growing on Arenosol. Raw, dry ash (fly ash, not stabilized) and nitrogen fertilizers were applied in the forest. There were 6 variants of the experiment: 1 - 1.25 t ash ha¨¹; 2 - 2.5 t ash ha¨¹; 3 - 5.0 t ash ha¨¹; 4 - 2.5 t ash ha¨¹ and 180 kg N ha¨¹; 5 - 180 kg N ha¨¹ and 6 - control (without ash and nitrogen). The primary effects (3 months - 2 years after the treatment) of wood ash fertilization on soil, soil solution, soil microflora and biological activity, fine roots and mycorrhiza, ground vegetation diversity, tree foliage chemistry, physiological parameters and litterfall are presented in the paper.
The highest wood ash dose (5.0 t ha¨¹) changed the chemistry of forest litter: the increased pH and total concentrations of most of the macronutrients were found after 2 years. In contrast, total N concentrations decreased due to ash application. Wood ash increased the number of ammonifying, denitrifying microorganisms and cellulose - decomposers in the forest litter 3 months after application.
Wood ash slightly reduced total length of fine roots and number of root tips 1 year after treatment. The highest degree of fine roots vitality was found in the plots treated with 2.5 - 5.0 t ha¨¹ of wood ash.
No changes in ground vegetation diversity were found after the wood ash and N application.
No changes of chlorophyll a, b were determined in the current year needles 5 months after application of wood ash. Wood ash decreased the content of the aminoacid proline and it has increased only after N addition.
Key words: wood ash, Scots pine, chemical composition, microflora, mycorrhiza, ground vegetation diversity, tree foliage

 Armolaitis, K., Aleinikovienė, J., Baniūnienė, A., Lubytė, J. and Žėkaitė, V. 2007. Carbon Sequestration and Nitrogen Status in Arenosols Following Afforestation or Following Abandonment of Arable Land. Baltic Forestry 13 (2): 169-178.

Over 600 000 ha of agricultural land on infertile soils (mainly Arenosols) are or soon will be abandoned in Lithuania. According to the resolution of the Kyoto Protocol, afforestation of this land could be relevant with the focus on carbon sequestration. The current study was carried out in a long-term permanent experiment in which arable Haplic Arenosols were afforested or before the abandonment were used as arable land during 25-year-long period. Soil chemical changes with an emphasis on organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) pools, and the storages in ground vegetation cover and the roots were compared in 45-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations and abandoned (11 years ago) arable land. The former plaggic Ap horizon was less acid (by 1.3-1.9 pHCaCl2 units) and 2-3 times more saturated with mobile phosphorus and potassium compounds in plots on formerly fertilized abandoned arable land than in afforested with pine plantation plots. The total C pool at 100 cm mineral soil depth (including O horizons) in abandoned arable land (3.81 kg C m-2) was 1.7 times less than in pine plantations (6.52 kg C m-2), mainly because of C accumulation in the forest floor (2.24 kg C m-2). The differences in mineral horizons were not significant, although the root mass in mineral topsoil was more than 10 times larger in pine plantations, except the surface 0-2 cm layer of the former Ap horizon in which the C pool was 3 times larger in pine plantations (0.72 kg C m-2) than in abandoned arable land (0.22 kg C m-2). Total soil N pools were at the same level (0.47-0.54 kg N m-2) because the mineral soil to the depth of 100 cm contained 90% and more of N in both the abandoned arable land and the pine plantations. It was concluded that pine plantations better preserve C and N pools in mineral horizons of Haplic Arenosols, than abandoned arable land that was formerly intensively fertilized with conventional NPK fertilizers and farmyard manure as well.
Key words:Lithuania, Haplic Arenosols, abandoned arable land, afforestation, Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, ground vegetation, roots, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen

 Fedorkov, A., Kaitera, J. and Jalkanen, R. 2007. Condition and growth of Scots pine seedlings under strong and weak pollution in Kola Peninsula. Baltic Forestry 13 (2): 179-183.

Anthropogenic stress has affected forest trees for decades and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future. The Scots pine tree condition was evaluated and tree height was measured at age twelve in provenance field trial established on two sites under strong and weak pollution levels in Kola Peninsula, NW Russia. The seedlings of three Finnish origins (Muonio, Ylitornio and Suomussalmi) were used for establishment of the trial. Based on needle, bud and stem observations, the evaluation of the condition was performed. Surprisingly the condition was better and trees were slightly taller on the strongly than weakly polluted site with significant differences among some provenances from northern Finland. The trees had a significantly higher condition (p<0.05) in the northernmost provenance (Muonio) than in the more southern ones (Ylitornio and Suomussalmi) under weak pollution. On the strongly polluted site, the differences between provenances were insignificant. Thus the dead forest area around Monchegorsk is most successfully reforested, when using artificial reforestation with local or more northern Scots pine seed sources.
Key words:tree condition, height, sulphur dioxide, heavy metals, Pinus sylvestris

 Kuisys, T., Naugžemys, D., Skridaila, A., Žilinskaitė, S. and Žvingila, D. 2007. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Taxus baccata L. in Provenances of Baltic Sea Countries. Baltic Forestry 13 (2): 184-189.

Taxus baccata L. is extinct species in natural stands of Lithuania and rare in neighbouring states. The paper presents a study of genetic diversity of Taxus baccata growing in natural populations close allocated to Lithuanian border in neighbouring Baltic Sea countries. The main aim of this investigation was to assess genetic based possibilities of regeneration of Taxus baccata population in Lithuanian forests. In this study we used RAPD markers to assess genetic diversity of 58 T. baccata samples of provenances from Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russian Kaliningrad region. We identified 58 RAPD profiles on the basis of 64 amplified DNA fragments. 73.4% of RAPD bands were polymorphic. Four provenance specific bands were identified. Results demonstrate rather high level of DNA polymorphism and genetic differentiation of studied T. baccata provenances.
Key words:Taxus baccata L., provenances, RAPDs, genetic diversity

 Sujetovienė, G. and Stakėnas, V. 2007. Changes in Understorey Vegetation of Scots Pine Stands under the Decreased Impact of Acidifying and Eutrophying Pollutants. Baltic Forestry 13 (2): 190-196.

Understorey vegetation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvetris L.) forests subjected to intense air pollution stress in the impact zone of one of the largest air pollution sources in central Lithuania – the nitrogen fertilizer plant Achema – were studied in 31 sample plots first in 1988 and again in 2004. A recovery of the vegetation was observed since the first sample time and interpreted as due to a distinct reduction of emission of nitrogen and sulphur oxides. Study stands were 85-100 years old with vegetation assigned to the Vaccinio-myrtillosa site type. Species which frequency changed little (Vaccinium myrtillus, Pteridium aquilinum) and increased in frequency (Trientalis europaea, Luzula pilosa, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Melampyrum pratense) were typical of site type species. During the study period nitrophilous species with indicator values for nitrogen >= 6 decreased in frequency. In 1988 nitrophilous plants comprised 58% of all herbaceous cover, while in 2004 only 21%. According to the unweighted Ellenberg indicator values the stands had become darker and less acidic. A significant decrease in nitrogen indicators was observed in 2004. The process of ground vegetation recovery was documented in terms of an increase in keystone species (Vaccinium myrtillus, V.vitis-idaea) and a reduction of nitrophilous species (e.c. Rubus idaeus).
Key words:acidification, nitrogen deposition, Ellenberg indicator values, understorey vegetation, Scots pine stands

 Rupšys, P., Petrauskas, E., Mažeika, J. and Deltuvas R. 2007. The Gompertz Type Stochastic Growth Law and a Tree Diameter Distribution. Baltic Forestry 13 (2): 197-206.

The study presents a comprehensive stand-level model for the tree diameter distribution. A Gompertz type stochastic logistic growth law is used for describing diameter distribution. Using the Gompertz type stochastic law of tree diameter growth, the age and height dependent probability density function of diameter distribution is obtained. The mean age-diameter, height-diameter growth trends and their variances for the Gompertz type stochastic differential equation are derived. The expected tree diameter distribution is predicted by using the Fokker-Plank equation and stand measurements. The estimates of parameters are performed by the L1 distance procedure. The Weibull, and negative exponential distributions are selected to study their performance to the observations. To evaluate the goodness-of-fit, the absolute discrepancy, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, and Reynolds error index statistics are adapted. In addition, for estimating the goodness-of-fit, the Chi-squared test, pseudo-residuals, and Shapiro-Francia statistic are arranged, and the normal quantile plot is described. To model the diameter distribution, as an illustrative experience, a real data set from repeated measurements on permanent sample plots of pine stands in Dubrava forest district is used. The results are implemented in the symbolic computational language MAPLE.
Key words:Weibull, Gompertz, negative exponential, diameter distribution, stochastic growth law, Fokker-Plank equation

 Žiogas, A., Juronis, V., Snieškienė, V. and Gabrilavičius, R. 2007. Pathological Condidion of Introduced Broadleaves in the Forests of South-Western and Western Lithuania.  Baltic Forestry 13 (2): 207-214.

In six forest enterprises and twelve forest districts of south-western and western Lithuania the condition of introduced trees of Acer, Juglans, Fagus, Quercus, Phellodendron, Populus, Robinia genera was studied in 2003-2005. The condition of all studied broadleaved trees was sufficiently good to grow them in Lithuanian forests along with native tree species for the enrichment of biological diversity and forest soil improvement. In the places of industrial and traffic pollution, the trees of Acer genus, Robinia pseudoacacia may be used. Quite perspective species for wood production in this part of Lithuania could be Juglans cinerea, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur. Acclimatization success of some studied species, such as Acer negundo, Populus genus, is limited by biotic (diseases and pests) factors. All the introducents are considered to be naturalized in Lithuania.
Key words:introduction, broadleaves, diseases, pests, condition

 Janiszewski, P. and Kolasa, S. 2007. Comparison of Carcass and Weight of Antlers of Roebuck (Capreolus capreolus) Harvested in Forest and Field Habitats. Baltic Forestry 13 (2): 215 - 220.

In this study, we analysed the weight and measurements of 111 European roebuck (Capreolus capreolus L.) carcasses. Animals were obtained from forest and field hunting grounds in north-eastern Poland. The own researching results duly confirm that carcass weight increases with the age of animals that is the carcass weight of the older roebuck is heavier than of younger animals. They were also characterized by the heaviest antlers (over 312.5 g). The average weight of antlers was 268.10 g in field roebucks, and 220.25 g in forest ones. The difference in this trait (near 50 g) was confirmed statistically. Two- and three-year-old roebucks differed significantly in the weight of antlers, whereas there were no such differences in four- and five-year-old animals.
Changes in carcass weight were accompanied by changes in its measurements: the height at withers, the height at sacrum and the chest girth. The carcasses of roebucks aged three years and older were almost 4 cm longer than those of younger ones – the difference was highly significant. The correlations between carcass weight and height at withers, as well as between carcass weight and chest girth, were ascertained. A significant correlation was observed between the weight of antlers and age of roebucks. The indices of reconstruction and massiveness were determined.
Key words:European roe deer Capreolus capreolus, carcass weight, carcass measurements, weight of antlers

 Tulokas, T. and Vuorilehto, J. 2007. Improvement Potential in Log Rotation. Baltic Forestry 13 (2): 221 - 228.

Several different log rotation methods are used at sawmills. They vary from manual log rotation to log rotation with a real time measurement. Furthermore, sawmills use different log rotation mechanics with different manufacturers. In general, all manufacturers have their opinions about the best log rotation technique for different sawing environments. For the best recovery, the standard deviation of the log rotation angle should be under 2ş for optimal sawing, including value optimizing with tomography. The typical standard deviation value of automatic log rotation angles in sawmills varies from 10º to 15º. Therefore, there is much room for improvement in log rotation mechanics in order to get a maximal profit at this most basic and important stage of cutting logs.
If and when the log rotation is not in control, the blame is usually put on the mechanical part of the system. However, our studies have indicated that all factors from the log conveyor to the computer communication between the subsystems have an effect on successful log rotation. This article discusses the aspects of rotation mechanics which affect the log rotation precision. Moreover, different log rotation methods used at sawmills are presented. Examinations and results of this article are based on log rotation studies at several Finnish sawmills during the years 2003 – 2005.
Key words:log rotation, log turner, sawing, optimizing, precision, yield

 Ošlejs, J. and Gamborg, Ch. 2007. Sustainable Forestry in Latvia: Building Bridges between Forest Science, Policy and Practice. Baltic Forestry 13 (2): 229 – 236.

In this paper we suggest and critically discuss new ways in which the gap between forest science, policy making and practice can be spanned – using the lessons from a just completed four-year Latvian–Danish project as a case for working towards better transfer of scientifically based knowledge into forestry. Forest covers nearly 50% of the Latvian total land area. Forests in Latvia contribute increasingly to the national economy, play an important amenity role and are internationally recognised as harbouring a wide array of European threatened plant and animal species, securing a high level of biodiversity. At the same time, forest legislation is in place and the forest science has been well-established in Latvia. Thus, the resource is in place, is more or less intact and, seemingly well protected in a legal sense, and has been the subject of scientific study. However, there is a severe lack of interaction between forest science and practice and policy making. In the paper, the current situation in the forestry sector and some of the underlying barriers to a successful interface between science, practitioners, decision makers and other forest professionals are characterised. A thematic analysis of the problems encountered during the project phase in relation to bridging the gap between science and policy is carried out. Finally, three main types of suggestion are given as how to improve the dialogue and knowledge link between science and practice and policy making in Latvia.
Key words:environment, forest management, Latvia, policy, science, stakeholders, sustainability

 Kuliešis, A. 2007. Publication on the Forest and Forestry of Biržai Region.  Baltic Forestry 13 (2): 237 – 240. (Book Review)

Leonardas Kairiūkštis, Romualdas Mankus, 2006. Biržu krašto miškai ir mišku ūkis. [Forest and Forestry of Biržai Region]. Monograph. Kaunas. Publishing House LUTUTE, 280 p., iliustr., bibliogr. Lithuanian, English and Russian Summary.
In the Book Review the analysis of the Monograph is conducted. The book has been initiated by the Biržai Forest Enterprise (manager Romanas Gaudiešius) in connection with the 85th anniversary of the foundation of the forest enterprise. The monograph consist of 14 chapters including description and analysis of the nature conditions and history of forestry of the Biržai region; development of forestry and its organization structure; forests resources and their dynamics; forest growing, wood use, amelioration, hunting, forest protection and other activities; results of scientific research, and their implementation into the practice of Birţai region forests. The last two chapters are devoted to the presentation of foresters - specialists who have been working in the Biržai Region as well as their remembrances.
The monograph is a significant contribution to the evaluation of forestry practice, multiple use of the northern part of Lithuania and the input from foresters as well as scientists to the achievements in forestry. The monograph would be very useful for all who are interested in forestry, forests and especially for young foresters and students.

 Belova, O. 2007. XXVIIIth Congress of the International Union of Game Biologists IUGB (August 13th – 18th 2007, Uppsala/Sweden). Baltic Forestry 13 (2): 241 – 243. (Chronicle)

The object of game management is game animals that have significant formative role in the forest communities as the inseparable part of forest biota. Rapid changes resulting from human activities has got animal populations to adapt to changing over the time primarily through retreat from unfavourable habitats to which they were poorly adapted. They also respond to altered environments through the evolutionary process of natural selection to maintain population fitness.
The International Union of Game Biologists (IUGB) encourages the exchange of scientific and practical knowledge in the field of game and wildlife management, the broad field of game biology and international cooperation in game and game management. The XXVIIIth Congress of the International Union of Game Biologists IUGB was held in Uppsala, Sweden on 13th - 18th August 2007 seeking to create a bridge among scientists, game managers and authorities and those studying the human dimensions of game management. The importance of the game biology research and of the Congress is revealed.

 Voolma, K. 2007. Cultural heritage in the forest: a conference of Baltic Forestry Societies in Saaremaa, Estonia. Baltic Forestry 13 (2): 244 (Chronicle)

The conference was held on the Island of Saaremaa, Estonia on August 23–25, 2007. Members of Forestry Societies and representatives of different forestry institutions from the three Baltic countries usually meet once a year to discuss the recent developments in the forestry sector of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. A traditional annual conference of the Baltic Forestry Societies is described.

 Voolma, K. 2007. The XXVII Nordic-Baltic Congress of Entomology in Uppsala. Baltic Forestry 13 (2): 244-245. (Chronicle)

The XXVII Nordic-Baltic Congress of Entomology was held in Uppsala, Sweden from July 29 to August 4, 2007. A series of entomological meetings in the Nordic countries was initiated by Swedish entomologists in 1923, when researchers and collectors of insects gathered in Stockholm. From the very beginning these meetings have been arranged in summer. The distinction and significance of these meetings lies in that they inspire and encourage collaboration between professional and amateur entomologists. Traditionally, much attention was paid to conservation issues of threatened insect species. Oral and poster presentations also dealt with various forest entomology topics. Proceedings of the recent Nordic-Baltic Congresses of Entomology were published as a separate book or special issues of an entomological journal

 Belova, O. 2007. VI International Meeting of SNS Network Disturbance Regimes in Changing EnvironmentBaltic Forestry 13 (2): 245-247 (Chronicle)

International meeting of SNS (Nordic Forest Research Cooperation Committee) Network Disturbance Regimes in Changing Environment was held in Jaunmokas Palace in Tukums, Tume parish, Tukums region, Latvia on 03 - 06th October 2007.
SNS Network activity is focused on the environmentally friendly forest management, that requires an understanding of the changes in ecosystem including natural disturbance processes and the responses of ecosystems to disturbances. This ecosystem understanding integrates both physical and chemical processes and the adaptations of individual organism. The main subtopics are described. The discussion was focused on further network activities including publication procedure.


 Lïbiete, Z. and Zàlïtis, P. 2007. Determining the Growth Potential for Even-aged Stands of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.).  Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 2-9

Under the forest growing conditions of Latvia the 30-40 year-old pure stands of spruce undergo abrupt changes. While in some stands an intensive volume growth in high quality stems continues, other stands decline, losing productivity and even breaking down. By using a method developed for this purpose, growth potential for even-aged pure stands of spruce in 355 forest compartments in eight regional forestries of Stock Company “Latvijas valsts meži” was analysed. Out of the compartments analysed healthy and promising stands were 26%, hopeless unpromising stands 11%, and increased risk stands 63%. The loss of growth potential for spruce could only partially be explained by the impact of site type or regional differences. The results of the given study suggest that this process is related to the ecological demands of Norway spruce as a shade tolerant tree species.
Key words: young spruce stands, productivity, management regime, volume growth, growth potential

 Vitas, A. and Erlickytė, R. 2007. Influence of Droughts to the Radial Growth of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at Different Site Conditions. Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 10-16

Dendroclimatological research on the radial growth of Scots pine in the Aukštaitija National Park in north-eastern Lithuania has been conducted. The aim of the study was to estimate the differences of the impact of droughts on the radial growth of pines growing on dry and wet sites. For this purpose event years of the radial growth were estimated. Investigation has revealed that the fluctuations of the soil water level have different impact on the radial growth of pines. An increase in the soil water level stimulates the radial growth on sites with organic soil, but on sites with mineral soil the growth is positively affected by the abatement of the water level. We found that droughts in spring and early summer (May-June) are much more dangerous for the radial growth of pines, as compared to August. Droughts of three-month duration have been acknowledged to be more stressful than short one-month droughts. The affect of drought to the radial growth of pines depends on climate conditions before and after the drought. The investigation did not reveal significant differences between the number of pines with negative event years growing on sites in organic peat and mineral soils.
Key words: tree rings, dendroclimatology, event year, drought, bog, soil water, Scots pine

 Lopatin, E., Kolström, T. and Spiecker, H. 2007. Approaches for the Identification of long-term Trends in Growth of Siberian Spruce and Scots Pine in North West of Russia. Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 17-27

Komi is situated at the eastern boundary of the European part of Russia, in the boreal region where large areas of natural forest still exist. Using radial and apical growth it was possible to detect positive long-term trends of the growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata Ledeb.) in the forest-tundra transition zone, the northern taiga zone, the middle taiga zone, and the southern taiga zone of boreal forests in the Komi Republic. Three different approaches were used for identifying long-term trends in the growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine: the chronology, comparison of the radial increment at similar cambial age, and comparison of the height increment at similar cambial age. The combination of methods for estimating long-term growth trends emphasizing the height increment has proven to be an adequate approach.
Key words: Pinus sylvestris L., Picea obovata Ledeb., radial increment, height increment changes, dendrochronology, growth variation, stem analysis

 Pliūra, A. and Baliuckas, V. 2007. Genetic Variation in Adaptive Traits of Progenies of Lithuanian and Western European Populations of Fraxinus excelsior L.   Baltic Forestry 13(1): 28-38.

The study aimed at evaluating genetic features of populations and genetic variation of adaptive traits and RAPD markers of open pollination progenies from Lithuanian and western European populations of Fraxinus excelsior in field trials, established in three different provenance regions of Lithuania. Progenies of the Lithuanian populations had earlier bud flushing and better health condition than the progenies of western European populations in all three trials but tree height was smaller (except the Šilutė population). Genetic effects at population and family levels were significant for all traits studied. Although family variance component was not high reaching from 11.6 to 22.6%, the additive coefficient of genetic variation was high ranging from 30.3 to 36.8% in separate field trials. Genetic variation of adaptive traits and RAPD markers did not correlate in most populations, thus indicating its differing adaptive potential. The Šakiai and Kupiškis populations had high genetic variation of both in adaptive traits and in RAPD markers, while other populations had differing levels of genetic variation in RAPDs and adaptive traits. The genetic changes within population variation across sites were population specific. Such changes can alter adaptation, stability, and competitive ability of newly formed populations in a hardly predictive way.
Key words: populations, progeny, half-sib families, genetic variation, adaptive traits, genotype × environment interaction

 Malabadi, R. B. and Nataraja, K. 2007. Influence of Triacontanol on Somatic Embryogenesis of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.  Baltic Forestry 13(1): 39-44.

This work highlights the influence of triacontanol on somatic embryogenesis and rooting of somatic seedlings in Pinus roxburghii. Mature zygotic embryos produced white-mucilaginous embryogenic callus when cultured on full strength LM (Litvay et al. 1985) basal medium supplemented with 90 mM maltose, 2.0gl¨¹ Gellan gum, 9.0µM 2,4-D and 7 µgl¨¹ triacontanol. On subculture of such embryogenic callus on the maintenance medium (II) containing 2.0µM 2,4-D and 2.0µgl¨¹ triacontanol induced pro-embryos. The highest percentage of somatic embryogenesis (83.5%) was recorded in PR810 genotype. Somatic embryos were successfully germinated on half strength LM basal medium without growth regulators. Therefore, triacontanol can be used as an effective growth regulator for inducing somatic embryogenesis and rooting in Pinus roxburghii.
Key words: Chir pine, Pinus roxburghii, Somatic embryogenesis, Tissue culture ABA-Abscisic acid, 2, 4-D-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, I-Initiation medium, II-Maintenance

 Kaitera, J. 2007. Effect of tree susceptibility on Peridermium pini lesion development and sporulation on Scots pine. Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 45-53

Susceptibility of Scots pine progenies to pine stem rusts may be an important factor in rust epidemics. This study is an investigation of the susceptibility, lesion development, and sporulation of a resin-top disease fungus, Peridermium pini, on Scots pine seedlings originating from the seeds of trees showing various degrees of susceptibility to pine stem rusts. The resin-top disease symptoms and rust sporulation induced after artificial inoculation, i.e. Peridermium pini aecia, stem swelling and spermatial fluid, were recorded in 1995 - 2003.
The tree susceptibility was found to have little or no effect on the disease rate or other disease and sporulation variables. Aecial sporulation lasted longer on seedlings from resistant trees when compared to seedlings from healthy trees, but the annual lengths of stem bearing aecia and swellings were greater on the seedlings raised from healthy trees than those raised from resistant trees. The spore source was found to significantly affect the disease and sporulation variables. The northernmost spore source induced higher disease rates, greater frequency of seedlings bearing aecia and swellings, and the resultant seasonal sporulation lasted longer than when using the southern spore sources as inocula.
Key words: aecia, Cronartium flaccidum, lesions, Peridermium pini, Pinus sylvestris, resin-top disease, resistance, Scots pine, spermatia, sporulation, susceptibility, swelling

 Liepiņš, K. 2007. First-year Height Growth of Silver Birch in Farmland depending on Container Stock Morphological Traits. Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 54-60

A trial was established to follow up the growth of silver birch container seedlings in the first year after planting out on abandoned farmland. Container seedlings were produced in the Rootrainer Sherwood container system (tray dimensions - 360 x 210 x 120 mm, cell volume 175 cm3, growing density 423 cells m-2). Simple linear regression was used to assess the first-year growth in height depending on the seedling initial morphological parameters. The low values of determination coefficients (0.033 - 0.147) indicated that a considerable proportion of variations in the growth could not be explained by seedlings morphology. The shoot : root and the diameter : height ratio of seedlings affected most significantly the growth in the first-year. Larger seedlings (higher values of shoot dry weight and shoot height) showed lower increment in height, indicating a higher transplanting stress. The experimental results are discussed in terms of raising the quality of birch container planting stock intended for farmland afforestation.
Key words: Betula pendula, afforestation, container seedlings, planting stock quality

 Zàlïtis, T. and Zàlïtis, P. 2007. Growth of Young Stands of Silver Birch (Betula pendula Roth.) Depending on Pre-Commercial Thinning Intensity.  Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 61-67

First pre-commercial thinnings at the average stand height of 3-6 m, leaving 1,500 - 2,000 trees ha¨¹ regardless of the stand density before thinning, are among the major tending practices in order to create highly productive stands. After the stand has reached the average height of 10 m, thinning from below has, for at least 12 years after thinning, no significant effect on the remaining stand. It is likely that self-pruning is a genetic particularity and has no bearing on the thinning intensity. The field data of 26 sample plots of the experiment on young birch stands thinned with varying intensities how the taper ratio to be of no significance for reducing the risk of snow damage. The assumption that the HD¨¹ ratio in stable stands should be below 1.0 is not confirmed.
Key words: pre-commercial thinning, young birch stands, Betula pendula Roth

 Žaltauskaitė, J. and Juknys, R. 2007. Atmospheric Deposition and Canopy Interactions in Urban Scots Pine Forest.  Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 68-73

The investigations of atmospheric deposition were carried out in 2002 in urban Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in second biggest Lithuanian city - Kaunas. The main aim of this study was to investigate atmospheric deposition and Scots pine canopy interactions at urban site and get more insight in dependency of precipitation chemistry on canopy closure. It was established that throughfall enrichment by anions was caused mainly by wash-off of dry deposited material, although there was a slight canopy exchange of chloride. By contrast, cations, and especially potassium enrichment came mainly from canopy leaching (p<0.05). Concentration of investigated ions in throughfall demonstrated a linear relationship with canopy closure. Twofold increase in canopy closure (40-80 %) led to an increase in the Cl¨ ions concentration in throughfall by factor 3 and the concentrations of SO4²¨, NO3¨ increased more than twice. The potassium concentration in throughfall grew by factor 2.4 along with twofold increase in canopy closure.
Key words: bulk deposition, canopy closure, canopy interaction, Scots pine,
net throughfall, throughfall

 Veijalainen, A.-M., Juntunen, M-L., Lilja, A. and Tervo, L. 2007. Composting of Forest Nursery Waste and Nutrient Leaching.  Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 74-82

The properties of forest nursery waste from the viewpoint of composting are not well known. The objective of the study was to clarify the properties of the forest nursery waste in order to get the thermophilic composting process going on. The composting process and nutrient leaching during composting was also studied. Forest nursery waste including tree seedlings and their growing media (Sphagnum peat), weeds, fallen leaves and grass clippings was composted in 300-litre experimental bins for three months. In the first summer, forest nursery waste was composted with and without horse manure, and during the second summer with and without urea or methylene urea fertilizer. Temperature, volume reduction, pH, water and the organic matter content, nutrient concentrations, water percolation and nutrient leaching were monitored during the composting. Horse manure was the only additive material, which ensured the thermophilic composting process. All additives increased the nitrogen leaching, and horse manure also increased the phosphorus leaching. The results suggest that additive material, such as horse manure, is needed to improve the heating process in forest nursery waste composting. However, the nutrient rich additive material may pose risk for the environment.
Key words: composting, forest nursery waste, horse manure, nutrient leaching, methylene urea, nitrogen, organic matter, phosphorus, potassium, thermophilic process, urea

 Malinauskas, A. 2007. Influence of Initial Density of Oak (Quercus robur L.) Plantations to Stem Quality  Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 83-88

Studies were carried out in the 46 year-old oak plantations of different initial density (3,570, 7,140, 12,300 and 20,000 trees ha¨¹). It was found that the straightness of oak stems at the height of 0.1 - 5.1 m from the ground surface is distinctly dependant on tree diameter. With increasing tree diameter, stem straightness increases as well. The stems of the thinnest trees are by 2 times more crooked (cm m¨¹), in comparison with the thickest trees. The straightest stems were in plantations of 7,140 trees ha¨¹ initial density. The number of branches and their thickness at 0.1 - 5.1 m height decreases under increasing initial density. Relative distribution of butt logs by quality classes within the range of studied densities is similar, however, with increasing initial density, the number of stems producing butt logs of the highest quality, expressed in percent from the number of planting places, constantly decreases. Second logs, compared with butt logs, most often are of inferior quality and only in exceptional cases the quality is higher. When butt logs are of the highest quality class, only 15% of second logs remain in the same class. Given the growth of plantations and timber quality, the initial density of oak plantations should be between 3,500-7,140 trees ha¨¹.
Key words:butt log, initial density, pedunculate oak, quality

 Juškaitis, R. 2007. Habitat Selection in the Common Dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius (L.) in Lithuania.  Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 89-95

The evaluation of habitat selection in the common dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius L.) in Lithuania was based on comparisons between observed proportion of M. avellanarius localities in forest stands dominated by different tree species, and their proportion in the total forest cover of Lithuania. In Lithuania, most localities of M. avellanarius were situated in forests: 75% in forest stands and 21% in overgrown clearings and young Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantations. Among forest stands, 39% of localities were situated in stands dominated by Norway spruce, 20% in birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens), and 13% in oak (Quercus robur)-dominated stands. In total, 39% of M. avellanarius localities were situated in conifer-dominated habitats with the majority of habitats also containing hazel (Corylus avellana). M. avellanarius preferred forest stands dominated by spruce and oak, but evidently avoided stands dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Additionally, forest stand selection in M. avellanarius was analysed at two dormouse study sites with nestboxes. The highest proportion of nestboxes used by M. avellanarius was found in spruce-dominated and oak- dominated stands, respectively. Indirectly, habitat selection in M. avellanarius is related to soil fertility: more suitable habitats for M. avellanarius are situated on more fertile soils.
Key words: common dormouse, habitats, forest stands, overgrown clearings, nestbox use, Lithuania

 Aukštikalnienė, R., Bukelskis, E. and Kašėtaitė, E. 2007. Intestinal Helminthes of Cervidae in Aukštaitija National Park.  Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 96-102

The aim of this study was to identify helminthes in the alimentary tract of Cervidae. Parasitological study of Moose (Alces alces), Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) and Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) has been implemented in the areas of the hunting research base of Vilnius University, the Ignalina and Utena regions, on the area of the Aukštaitija National Park. Additional material for coprological analyses of farmed Red Deer was collected. To examine the faeces, the modified method of McMaster, methods of sedimentation and cultures of larvae were applied. It has been found that 100% of Cervidae were infected with nematodes of the Strongylidae, Trichostrongylidae, Strongyloidae and Trichuridae families, as well as with the flatworms of Paramphistomatidae and Fasciolidae families. Free ranging Red Deer were infected with seven nematode species, while farmed Red Deer were infected with three of them. Moose were infected with six nematode species and Roe Deer were infected with four. Flatworm P. cervi was characteristic of all the examined game animals. F. hepatica has been determined in Moose and the farmed Red Deer. It is stated that now the parasitological situation in wild game in the examined district is not very bad (the infection level in most cases was lower than 200 epg). In order to assess seasonal ability of the infection and the extent of the helminthes invasion in wild game, it is very important to examine more Cervidae during seasons of the year, also, to carry out the coproscopic analysis of animals of the different age ranges, and finally, to determine herb contamination with the nematode larvae.
Key words: Cervidae, Alces alces, Cervus elaphus, Capreolus capreolus, helminthes, nematodes, flatworms

 Aleinikovas, M. 2007. Effect of the Mean Diameter Increment on the Pine Wood Mechanical-Physical Properties in Lithuania.  Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 103-108

The paper presents the evaluation and comparison of some physical and mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood in stands with different growth type. The data have been collected on the basis of 9 sample plots. There were aspired that pine stands chosen for wood analysis could have as much familiar structure and identity character of stand growth as possible. Though, the requirements retained for using the mean diameter increment (cm per year) in maximum index (dv) for classification of dominant trees growing. According to this index, the pine stands were divided into three dv groups: 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 cm per year, when the age in maximum (Ak) was from 15 to 36 years. Wood samples were taken at the stem butt-end. The average annual ring width, late wood percentage in annual ring, wood density, bending strength in tangential direction and compression strength along the grain were determined in the samples. It was estimated that wood density, bending strength and compression strength of pine trees from the analysed three dv groups have differed significantly. It is considered that pine wood has the most proper physical and mechanical properties when the stand stocking level is between 0.8 - 0.9.
Key words: Scots pine, the mean diameter increment in maximum index, wood physical - mechanical properties

 Vobolis, J. and Albrektas, D. 2007. Analysis of Wood Peculiarities by Resonant Vibration Method.  Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 109-115

Most wood products meet dynamic loads. Evaluation of mechanical properties of wood in dynamic mode allows forecasting wood assortment behaviour in dynamic loads zone. The article discusses modulus of elasticity research methodology and equipment for leafy and conifer (oak and spruce) rectangular wood plates (oak - 340×340×14 mm and 400×300×14 mm, spruce - 300×280×30 mm and 300×265×30 mm), glued-up panels (oak - 500×500×30 mm and 700×700×30 mm, spruce - 400×400×14 mm) and scantlings (oak - 670×60×30 mm, spruce - 400×40×14 mm).
Cross-resonant vibrations method was employed for wood assortment analysis. Resonant frequencies and bend forms (modes) were evaluated. It was illustrated that through different along and across mechanical properties of wood fiber vibration of such products to the above-mentioned directions are parallel to vibration of beam-formed body.
Applying theoretical calculations for beam-formed body, oak wood modulus of elasticity was estimated across (Ep= 900 - 2000 MPa) and along (El = 8000 - 14000 MPa) fiber. For spruce wood, respectively, (Ep= 140 - 500 MPa) and (El = 7500 - 14000 MPa).
Suggested methodology and equipment can be successfully applied to analysis and quality evaluation (assortment, hunt for defects, etc.) of other products, analogical to natural wood in terms of fiber direction.
Key words: wood plate, glued-up panel, scantlings, resonance vibrations, modulus of elasticity

 Tomczak, A., Pazdrowski, W. and Jelonek, T. 2007. Distribution of Intermediate and Mature Wood on the Longitudinal Cross Section of the Tree Trunk and Selected Biometric Traits of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)  Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 116-125

The study presents an analysis of the occurrence of transition and mature wood in the stem profile of Scots pine trees. For this purpose, 10 experimental plots were established in the Miastko Forest District, which comprised two forest site types, fresh coniferous forest and fresh mixed coniferous forest, as well as five age classes, i.e. class II, III, IV, V and VI, and in each plot three model trees were selected.
Correlations were found e.g. between the eight of the tree, the length and diameter of its crown and the vertical range of the occurrence of transition and mature wood. The described correlations may be used as an easy method for the determination of the vertical range of the occurrence of transition and mature wood. In addition, it has been demonstrated that in the stem profile both the transition and mature wood is formed in this zone of the stem on which the live part of the crown is set.
Key words: Pinus sylvestris, biometric traits, transition wood, mature wood, stem profile, crown

 Möttönen, V. and Kärki, T. 2007. Effect of Drying Force on Birch Wood Colour Change during High Temperature Drying.  Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 126-130 (Brief Report)

Sawn birch timber is traditionally dried very carefully at low temperatures in order to avoid discolouration of wood. To be able to increase the capacity of old kilns and enable the drying of birch in high temperature drying kilns, experiments of high temperature drying of birch were made. The main aim of the study was to investigate the intensity of discolouration of birch during high temperature drying and test the novel combination drying (hot air drying/high temperature drying).
The results have shown that sawn birch timber darkens in normal high temperature drying when drying force is kept low above FSP. Especially, reddish colour will appear in the planks. The results also have shown that this kind of discolouration can be decreased considerably by increasing the drying force during the first steps of the drying process. The results indicate that hot air/high-temperature-dried birch timber could be used particularly in gluelams and I-beams for the lower price categories. Further studies are needed on other mechanical and physical properties of birch wood dried by the hot air/high temperature method.
Key words: Drying force, hardwood, high temperature drying, wood colour

 Liukko, T., Salila, T., Platt, S. and Kärki, T. 2007. Wood Plastic Composites in Europe: an Introduction to Wood Plastic Composite Markets and Products.  Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 131-136  (Brief Report)

This paper deals with markets and product applications of wood plastic composites in Europe. At the present moment there are only a few industrial manufactures of Wood Plastic Composites (WPC) in Europe. The manufactures are usually small and specified in certain products, which is contradictory to the North American manufacturing structure. A WPC is considered as a competitive material mainly in the field of the window and door industry and outdoor furniture products. The first part of this paper deals briefly with the history of WPC as a product and introduces a general description on the production process. The second part of the paper presents European market trends and market segmentation and some common product and sales attributes for WPCs.
Key words: wood plastic composite, markets, wooden products

 Voolma, K. 2007. Recent Doctoral Theses from Estonia.  Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 137  (Chronicle)

List of the recent Doctoral theses from Estonia is presented.

 Belova, O. 2007. Recent problems of nature use, game biology and fur farming.  Baltic Forestry 13 (1): 137-138  (Chronicle)

Recognising no mean importance of game animals in the forest ecosystems and surroundings as well as the substantial links between the Game Management science and forest sciences, knowledge of the new events in wildlife studies goes more relevant. Present Game Management is oriented to sustainable use and conservation of wildlife resources including the system of arrangements and economic measures to protect wildlife and their habitat, and improve habitat carrying capacity. Game management combines main objects of game management are game and their habitats.
The International Scientific and Practical Conference Recent Problems of Nature Use, Game Biology and Fur Farming has been held at B.M Zhitkov’s Russian Research Institute of Game Management and Fur Farming in Kirov, Russia, on 22-25 May, 2007. The conference was dedicated to the 85th Anniversary of the Institute. The significant input of the organizer enable representatives from different countries to attend the different Sections of the Conference and to impart benefits of their knowledge as well as extend and make up new fruitful scientific contacts.


 Baliuckienė, A. and Baliuckas, V. 2006. Genetic Variability of Silver Birch (Betula pendula L.) Wood Hardness in Progeny Testing at Juvenile Age. Baltic Forestry, 12 (2): 134-140

17 out of 24 Lithuanian and 2 Swedish silver birch (Betula pendula L.) populations were studied for wood hardness by using 6 J Pilodyn measurements. Totally 100 Lithuanian and 14 Swedish half-sib families at age 7 are being tested in the plantation, but only 83 local families were included in this study. 3-7 families represented each population. Family effect appeared to be the largest for wood hardness and its variance component was 18.4±7.6% (P=0.1%). Family x diameter class interaction component was 16.0±7.7% (P=1%). Population effect, tested against the family effect as an error term, was not significant and its variance component did not exceed 1%. Additive genetic coefficients of variation for this trait ranged from 0 to 12.7% and only 4 of analysed 17 populations had estimates exceeding 10%. Genetic correlations with bud burst and growth cessation were negligible positive to weak negative. Though weak, but significant estimate indicates better wood trait quality in birch families with longer vegetation period. This type of estimates of wood hardness with height and diameter were 0.23±0.06 and 0.71±0.08, respectively. Correlation of wood hardness with individual tree selection indexes was 0.15. It can be concluded that even performing birch breeding in the way when wood properties are not examined and used, wood quality in coming breeding cycles remains only slightly worse. Also including wood properties in selection process could lead to significant improvement of that trait.
Key words: Betula pendula, populations, open pollinated families, progeny testing, wood hardness, genetic diversity, breeding

 Žiauka, J. and Kuusienė, S. 2006. Changes in Development of European Larch (Larix decidua Mill.) Vegetative Buds Induced by Plant Hormones. Baltic Forestry, 12 (2): 141-150

Effects of exogenously applied auxins and cytokinins on morphogenesis of European larch vegetative buds collected from 40-year-old tree were investigated using plant tissue culture techniques. Explants were prepared as short segments with axillary buds cut from the current year twigs or one-year-old twigs and were cultivated on modified MS medium. Different variants of nutrient medium were featured by different content of phytohormones: abscisic acid, auxins (indole-3-acetic acid and 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), cytokinins (kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine) and gibberellin (gibberellic acid-3). Abscisic acid negatively affected organogenesis in larch vegetative buds. Negative effect of auxins on the development of basal needles was significant after larch buds were cultivated in vitro 25 days but after 75 days the tendency was observed that the number of explants with newly developing shoots increases with increasing concentration of auxins. Auxins strongly increased callus formation on larch explants. Cytokinins blocked elongation of needles and induced formation of long-shoot primordia (structures able to form new meristems and to develop adventitious buds). Positive effect of cytokinins on viability of larch buds was significant in dark-grown explants, while large amounts of cytokinins have decreased the viability of light-grown explants (but less significantly). Gibberellin was able to promote the development of axial needles in the shoot apex zone.
Key words:larch, bud development, cytokinins, auxins, gibberellin, phase change

 Suchockas, V. 2006. Germination Capacity of Seeds and Initial Development of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Seedlings in Various Soil Layers. Baltic Forestry, 12 (2): 151-157

Scots pine seed germination capacity in various genetic layers of the soil after sowing the stands and seedling growth at initial development stage of the plantations were discussed in this article. In different methods prepared soil at the same time also distinguished itself in a complex of different ecological conditions that had limiting to seed germination factor. The most favourable germination was achieved by one-year old stratified seeds covered on furrow bottom. The highest Scots pine seed germination capacity was achieved at the humus horizon. The pine seed are not germinate when get into humus or illuvial horizons in hillocks. Differences in seedling development in various soil genetic horizons are not statistical significant. More intensive seedling development was observed in humus horizon as well as in litter mixed with humus and illuvial horizons.
Key words:soil genetic horizons, seeds, seed germination, sowing

 Kuliešis, A.A., Kuliešis, A. 2006. Edge Effect on Forest Stand Growth and Development. Baltic Forestry, 12 (2): 158-169

Edge, pre-edge and interior zones were distinguished in the forest compartments of Scotch pine, Norway spruce, Common birch and Common alder stands. The edge zone is located at 10-12 m, pre-edge at 12-27 m distance from the borderline. The most favourable growth conditions for trees at the stage of stand formation are in the pre-edge zone. In the beginning trees are characterized by a faster growth, however, later it approaches the growth of trees in the interior zone. In the edge zone, during stand formation plants suffer from additional competition for sunlight and nutrients on account of the adjacent stand, leading to the formation of sparsely stocked stands with lower and thicker trees. Growing more sparsely, trees later attain higher yield than trees growing in the interior part. The edge zone trees of lower diameter and height ratio form a buffer zone of the stand and increase its stability. The highest differences in the growing stock volume of stands growing in the edge zone and comprising 38-47 m3/ ha at maturity, as compared to the volume of stands growing in the interior part of compartments, were found in Scotch pine and Common alder stands, while the least - 8 m3/ha - in Norway spruce stands. Volumes of trees growing in the pre-edge zone, as compared to the volumes of stands growing in the interior part, remain higher up to maturity in Scotch pine by 3-4, Norway spruce by 1-2, Common birch by 9-10 and in Common alder stands by 1-3 %. Stand yield formation in the edge zone of a compartment is closer to the normal or slowed types, while in the interior and pre-edge parts - to the accelerated or normal types.
Key words:stand zones, differences in tree height, diameter, yield and its formation

 Stöd, R., Kilpeläinen, H. and Wall, T. 2006. Yield and Technical Quality of Scots Pine Saw Timber from Thinnings on Drained Peatlands and Mineral Soils in Finland. Baltic Forestry, 12 (2): 170-183

In this study the yield of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) timber suitable for mechanical wood processing from thinning operations in different drained peatland and mineral soil stands was determined calculatorily, using the data from field surveying. Additionally, the external quality of the trees was studied. The yield of saw timber was small in general, and its proportion of the thinning removal was modest. The largest yield was obtained when round construction timber - in addition to the normal timber assortments - was harvested. At its highest the yield of saw timber was 11 m3/ha (16% of thinning removal) from drained peatlands and 18 m3/ha (31% of thinning removal) from mineral soils. Also small-diameter and short logs increased the yield of saw timber from thinning stands as compared to the yield obtained harvesting only normal saw logs. In thinning stands the number of defect-free trees was small. The most frequent external defects were the deviations from the straight stem form. Despite the relatively poor quality of the trees, the main reason for the low saw timber yield was the small size of the harvested trees.
Key words: thinning, drained peatland, saw timber, technical quality

 Jurkonis, N., Juknys, R. and Venclovienė, J. 2006. Relationship between Scots Pine Individual Tree Mortality and Tree Vigor Indicators in the Polluted Environment. Baltic Forestry, 12 (2): 184-191

Dependence of individual tree mortality probability on tree growth intensity (diameter increment) and crown defoliation is analysed in the article. Even-aged Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests, located in the surroundings of one of the biggest air pollution sources in Lithuania, mineral fertilizer plant ‘Achema’ (55°05.N; 24°20.E) were the main focus of these investigations. Multiple growth dependent logistic individual tree mortality models were elaborated and it was established that the tree mortality probability increases exponentially along with an increase in crown defoliation, however the rate of increase is rather different at different stand age and at the different diameter increment. In general, at the same defoliation level the probability of individual tree mortality was detected to be much higher for trees of lower growth rate, i.e. for trees of lower vitality. However, the relative increase in tree mortality probability with an increase in crown defoliation was faster for trees of higher growth rate. The impact of crown defoliation on the tree mortality rate increases with the aging of stands. Tree mortality probability exponentially decreases along with increase of tree growth rate (diameter increment); however for damaged (defoliated) trees dependence of tree mortality probability on the intensity of tree growth is much less pronounced.
Key words: polluted environment, tree growth, individual tree mortality, crown defoliation

 Salila, T. and Kärki, T. 2006. Mechanical Hardwood Processing Potential in New EU Countries. Baltic Forestry, 12 (2): 192-199

This paper describes the possibilities in recent associated EU-countries in the area of mechanical hardwood processing. The development potential is based on raw material resources and exploring production capacities. The main stress is focused on the broad-leaved species and the sawing industries. The country review is limited to the most significant ones concerning forestry and mechanical wood processing; therefore, Malta and Cyprus are not included. The production factors are collected from the European statistical office (Eurostat) and Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) databases. The first part of the statistical material is for the years 1998-2004. The 2004 figures were analysed by using a modified type of theoretical model for the timber market, which was multiplied by the common sawn timber yield. The results show that hardwood production has developed in all countries in the last few years. The biggest changes have occurred in the Baltic countries. Latvia and Estonia have developed most rapidly. During the last ten years they have doubled the sawn wood production. According to sawn hardwood production Latvia and Poland are the biggest producers. The biggest possibilities are also in these countries because of current high export figures. Comparing present situation towards reserves the most potential country seems to be Hungary.
Key words: Hardwood resources, transitional countries, development potential

 Vitas, A. and Žeimavičius, K. 2006.Trends of Decline of Douglas Fir in Lithuania: Dendroclimatological Approach. Baltic Forestry, 12 (2): 200-208

Dendroclimatological research on Rocky Mountains Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and Green Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) - introduced trees in Lithuania has been discussed in the article. Multiple regression analysis has shown positive and significant influence of air temperature at the end of winter - beginning of spring on the radial growth of Douglas fir, while the strong positive impact of precipitation in June prevails in eastern Lithuania. Analysis on pointer years of the radial growth has indicated that decreases in the radial growth of Douglas fir are driven by colds in winter - spring and droughts in summer. Increases in the radial growth are connected to warm winters and humid summers. Our research indicates that the importance of winter colds as the limiting factor for the radial g rowth of Douglas fir at the end of the 20th century has decreased, while summer droughts gain greater importance. According to the trends on the global climate change it is supposed that summer droughts will remain the main limiting factor for the survival of Douglas fir in Lithuania in the beginning of the 21st century. Conditions more favourable for the growth of Douglas fir are likely to be in the regions of West Lithuania: seaside lowlands and Žemaičiai Uplands.
Key words: climate, Green Douglas fir, pointer year, radial growth, Rocky Mountains Douglas fir

 Stravinskienė, V. and Šimatonytė, A. 2006. Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Health Condition in Kaunas City Forests. Baltic Forestry, 12 (2): 209-219

This article reviews the dynamics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) health condition in different Kaunas city districts in 1994-2003. Health condition of Scots pine trees was estimated according to morphological indicatorial parameters: tree crown defoliation, foliage discolouration, amount of dead branches, needle retention, fruiting, state of tops and visual damages. It was found, that health condition of pine trees was worsening reliably in 1994-1998, except Kleboniškis- 2 and Lampė-1džiai sample plots, and in 2001-2003 - except Raudondvaris-2 sample plot. The mean crown defoliation of all sample stands in 1994 was 29.0±1.9 %, in 1995 - 28.8±2.1 %, in 1996 - 30.4±2.2 %, in 1997 - 32.1±1.9 %, in 1998 - 33.5±2.0 %, in 2001 - 25.9±3.6 %, in 2002 - 29.2±3.2 %, in 2003 - 34.3±2.5 %. According to tree crown defoliation the best health condition of Scots pine forests was estimated in Botanikos sodas sample plot, small defoliation was found in Kleboniškis-2 and Eiguliai sample plots. The worst state of Scots pine was defined in Raudondvaris-2 sample plot, also great defoliation was defined in Kleboniškis-1, Palemonas-1, Palemonas-2, Panemunė-1, Petrašiūnai-1, Petrašiūnai-2 and Vičiūnai sample plots. The greatest Scots pine crown defoliation (34.3±2.5 %) in Kaunas city districts during our research period (1994-2003) was defined in 2003.
Key words: Scots pine, air pollution, indicatorial parameters, health condition, city environment

 Vitas, A. 2006. Sensitivity of Scots Pine Trees to Winter Colds and Summer Droughts: Dendroclimatological Investigation. Baltic Forestry, 12 (2): 220-226

Our research focuses on dendroclimatological assessment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees, which are sensitive and resistant to low winter temperatures and summer droughts. Research was conducted on the experimental plot located in the northeastern Lithuania. Pines sensitive and resistant to climatic conditions were detected by using response function analysis. Investigation has revealed high heterogeneity among pine trees in respect to their response to low winter temperatures and summer droughts. It was found that trees characterised by similar response to contrast climatic conditions mostly are located in smaller or bigger clusters. Because the standard dendroclimatological techniques at present are not able to interpret the results we hypothesize that different sensitivity to climate conditions are determined by genetic features of trees.
Key words: dendroclimatology, summer droughts, resistance, response function, Scots pine, sensitivity, winter colds

 Sadauskienė, L. 2006. The Top Diameter Limits in Integrated Forest Fuel Procurement System: Lithuanian Case Studies. Baltic Forestry, 12 (2): 227-233

Economic possibility of undelimbed stems parts usage for forest fuel production is analysed in this article. The aim of the research is to assess the top diameter limits in integrated cut-to-length and forest fuel wood procurement system.
The article provides mathematical model for calculation of spruce, pine and birch stems delimbing time. Delimbing costs of 1 m3 of wood, comprised from the same diameter stems parts, are presented in the article.
In order to reach the goal, study of time expenditures of spruce, pine and birch stems delimbing was carried out and delimbing costs were calculated. Delimbing time of 725 spruces, 733 pines and 1000 birches was observed by cumulative timing method. The top diameter limits were estimated by maximum difference in net income of integrated and cut-to-length wood procurement. The top diameter limits depend on difference in prices of pulpwood and forest fuel. The top diameter limits were estimated for spruces, pines and birches in relation with diameter and development class of trees.
Key words: top diameter limits, forest fuel, delimbing, time expenditures, costs, net income

 Žiogas, A., Juronis, V., Sneškienė, V. and Gabrilavičius, R. 2006. Pathological Condition of Introduced Conifers in the Forests of South - Western and Western Lithuania. Baltic Forestry, 12 (2): 234-242

Tree condition of Abies, Larix, Picea, Pinus and Pseudotsuga genera was studied in the forests of six forest enterprises and twelve forest districts in the south-western and western Lithuania in 2003 - 2005. Based on our studies, as perspective species for growing in this part of Lithuania could be considered Larix decidua, L. polonica, Pinus contorta and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Acclimatization success of other tree species: Abies alba, A. sibirica, A. concolor; Larix laricina, L. sibirica, L. leptolepis; Pinus banksiana, P. peuce, P. strobus; Picea glauca, P. pungens; Pseudotsuga caesia - is restricted by biotic (disease pathogens and pests) and abiotic (edaphic and climatic conditions) factors.
Key words: introduction, conifers, diseases, pests, condition

 Belova, O. 2006. Game Management State and Topicalities in the Context of Small-Scale Forestry in Lithuania. Baltic Forestry, 12 (2): 243-251

There are some specific features of the Lithuanian game management dating back to ancient times, and the hunting traditions built through the centuries while humans have settled the territory of present Lithuania. Plenty of archaeological remains, historic metrics and folklore all proclaim the honour-founded relations of the ancient Lithuanian people with nature including wildlife. The initial notions of wildlife use and protection formed mostly because of the influence of nature worship. The function of hunting depends on the historical socio-cultural state. In the primitive society the hunting was source for subsistence. The next its character related to the mentioned nature worship and assumed a part of lifestyle based on the spiritual aspects. Further agricultural development of Lithuania has formed a game management as a source of additional food and need to protect human prosperity against damage caused by game. The development of game management was different from other countries because of quite specific history through last centuries. The game management assumed the features of leisure, pleasure, and passion in social life, of a contribution to the nutrition system as well as takes social and economic ground. Presently, changes in the use of natural resources including hunting are one of six EU and Lithuanian national priorities. The total common area of production (hunting area) constitutes 4,178,362 hectares including 1,931,651 hectares of the forest area. The total hunting area involves 897 hunting units, where hunters - users of game resources number 25,000 (FACE 2005). The area of production slightly decreases in comparison with last hunting seasons owing to the changes in an area of the new-formed and re-formed hunting units. The last national legal acts and ratified international conventions and directives defined the game management. Hunting competence, regulation rights, control of the orderliness are validated and divided on the ground of the Hunting Law (IX-966, 2002). There are a lot of ambiguous articles on the game management in the small-scale forestry. The main actualities and challenges of game management are discussed in conformity with differences between social groups, property rights, qualitative, quantitative and territorial regulation of game populations, forest damage, benefits of game management and development of the ecological and hunting tourism.
Key words: game management, hunting rights, legal acts, forest owner

 Treinys, R. and Mozgeris, G. 2006. Past and present nest-site requirements of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina C.L.Brehm) and their possible conflicts with timber harvesting. Baltic Forestry, 12 (2): 252-258

Recently, the growing demand for raw timber has resulted in the intensification of forest use in the Baltic countries. The aim of this study was to examine whether the increased timber harvesting during the last decade has influenced the requirements of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina C.L.Brehm) for their nest-sites. In 2004, 7% of checked Lesser Spotted Eagle territories were disturbed by forestry operations. The general tendency was that the characteristics of stands used for nesting differed from the average forest stand characteristics in the landscape less than a decade ago. Eagles were found to nest on 19 different forest types, while previously just 13 of such forest types had been recorded. Less productive forests (2nd site class) and normally irrigated stands were not avoided nowadays. The average age of nest stands decreased by 16 years. Though oak remained one of the most preferred nest-trees (20% of all cases), spruce became the most common one (48%). This leads to the assumption, that the eagles are less selective nowadays than in the past. The increased timber harvesting during the last decade might explain why eagles switched to nest in stands, more similar to the surrounding forest landscape than in the past, and why some nest-site preferences remained and others disappeared. It is likely that during the next 30 years forest operations will be one of the most important factors, having an effect on the Lesser Spotted Eagle population in Lithuania.
Key words: Lesser Spotted Eagle, nest-site selection, timber harvesting, disturbance

 Kairiūkštis, L. 2006. Publicationon the Perception of the Condition of Trees Submitted to Stress. Baltic Forestry , 12 (2): 259-260 (Book Reviews)

Laima Skuodienė. 2005. Medžiu stresas ir jo fiziologinė indikacija [Stress of Trees and their Physiological Indication]. Monograph. Kaunas, ARX Baltijos spaudos namai, 224 p., illiustr., bibliogr., Lithuanian, English, German and Russian Summary. ISBN 9955-638-281.
As a result of obvious climatis anomalies more and more threatening situations are observed in Baltic forests. Different tree species, namely these, taht are less typical to our climatic and soil conditions, are found to be in a critical situation. As to stress of trees, as a primary indication of their death, it must be noted that until recently in Baltic countries the pgysiological expression of stress was nor studied. Therefore the appearance of monograph "Stress of trees and their physiological indication" by Doctor of Biomedical Science Laima Skuodienė was appreciated both by foresters and by the society of natural sciences.
The monograph is a significant contribution to comprehension of the physiological function of the interaction between trees and the environment.



 Heräjärvi, H. and Junkkonen, R. 2006. Wood Density and Growth Rate of European and Hybrid Aspen in Southern Finland. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 2-8

Aspen species are mainly used for paper production in Finland. In order to increase the cutting potential, hybrid aspen has lately been planted in southern Finland. In this study we compared the rotation– time–long growth rate and within–stem density distribution of mature European and hybrid aspen. The material consisted of 30 naturally born European aspen trees and 45 planted hybrid aspen trees from southern Finland. From those trees, altogether 225 discs were measured for the ring–width data and 5109 specimens for the basic density data. The results showed that after an initiation phase of 5-10 years, European aspen grows relatively steadily ca. 5-8 mm/a in diameter, until the tree age exceeds ca. 50 years. Thereafter the diameter growth decreases. Hybrid aspen attains the average diameter growth of 10-14 mm/a, at the age of 10-20 years. At the age of 25, the diameter growth has already decreased down to the level of 5-16 mm/a. The within–stem density distribution was more uniform in hybrid aspen. The average basic densities of European and hybrid aspen wood material were 376 and 363 kg/m3, respectively.
Key words: basic density, European aspen, growth rate, hybrid aspen, Populus tremula, Populus tremula x tremuloides

 Aleinikovas, M. and Grigaliūnas, J. 2006. Differences of Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Wood Physical and Mechanical Properties from Different Forest Site Types in Lithuania. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 9-13

The paper presents the evaluation and comparison of some physical and mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood from three Lithuanian forest sites – normal humidity very poor site (Na), normal humidity poor site (Nb) and normal humidity fertile site (Nc). The data have been collected on the basis of 9 sample plots. Wood samples were taken at the stem butt–end. The average annual ring width, late wood percentage in annual ring, wood density, bending strength in tangential direction and compression strength along the grain were determined in the samples. Wood density of pine trees from the analysed three forest sites have not difered significantly. The estimated bending strength (92.68 MPa) and compression strength parallel to grain (82.48 MPa) of wood from Nb site are highest and significantly difer, in comparison with Na and Nc forest sites.
Key words: Scots pine, forest site type, wood physical – mechanical properties

 Callesen, I., Raulund-Rasmussen, K., Jørgensen, B. B. and Kvist–Johannsen, V. 2006. Growth of Beech, Oak, and Four Conifer Species Along a Soil Fertility Gradient. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 14-23

Growth of beech, oak, and four coniferous species (Norway spruce, Douglas–fir, Larch and Sitka spruce) was compared in a 33–year–old tree species trial on eight field soils in Denmark. Height and volume growth were fitted in difference equations, and parameter estimates a(H100) and a(Vtot) were tested as biotic site quality indicators against climate and soil fertility indicators. Site quality indicators for height a(H100) and volume growth a(Vtot) increased significantly with soil nutrient availability (PC1) for Sitka spruce, Norway spruce and oak (height), and oak and beech (total volume). Principal component analysis explained 64 % of total variance in soil and climate variables by the first component (PC1), which was interpreted as a gradient in soil nutrient availability. The volume growth of oak and beech responded stronger to increasing soil nutrient availability than the conifers, and the correlation was stronger. Conifers were able to maintain a high production on very nutrient poor soils in contrast to oak and beech. Therefore, volume growth a(Vtot) of conifers as an indicator for soil fertility is inappropriate within the study area, as conifer growth does not reflect soil nutrient availability. However, the correlations observed in growth–site–soil variables in this study suggest that soil information should be used in forecasting growth performance e.g. in planning afforestation of arable land.
Key words: Tree species trial – soil – site relationship, soil nutrient regime – afforestation – set – aside farmland

 Petäistö, R.-L. 2006. Botrytis cinerea and Norway Spruce Seedlings in Cold Storage. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 24-33

The risk of grey mold damage on first – year Norway spruce seedlings during cold storage was studied using conidia inoculation on spruce seedlings with different inoculation times and microclimate conditions (surface wetness, temperature, relative humidity) before storing. The temperature dependence of germination and germtube growth of Botrytis cinerea conidia at low temperatures was tested in vitro. The germination of Botrytis cinerea spores in vitro reached 100 % in 15 hours at 6ºC, and in about 52 hours at 0C. The length of the germtube in 52 hours was seven times longer at 6ºC than at 0ºC. These results indicate that the main progression of grey mold occurs in the beginning and/or thawing phase of cold storage. In the three inoculation experiments the cold storage temperature was about -3ºC and the seedlings were stored in cardboard boxes. Uninoculated seedlings in the same boxes with inoculated seedlings had a higher disease incidence than the seedlings in boxes with no inoculated seedlings. Inoculation performed 7, 4 or 1 days before cold storage caused more disease before cold storage the earlier the inoculation was carried out. During cold storage the disease frequency doubled or increased even more. The treatment at 6ºC, 80-90% relative humidity and surface wetness immediately before cold storage seemed to increase the number of diseased needles on the top of shoot more than the treatments at 2ºC and at 6ºC with 60 – 70 % relative humidity and surface wetness. The proportion of seedlings with bud burst showed a strongly negative correlation with the number of diseased needles at the top of the shoot at the end of storage. According to the results of this study, especially a high relative humidity with surface wetness on the seedlings and temperatures a few degrees above zero in the beginning of cold storage favour grey mold damage. The experiments indicate that B. cinerea is a potential storage pathogen for Norway spruce seedlings even though the seedlings are, in late autumn, relatively resistant to this pathogen if not additionally stressed.
Key words: Botrytis, grey mold, Picea, Norway spruce, spore germination, wetness, temperature, microclimate, cold storage

 Grigaliūnas, K. and Zolubas, P. 2006. Spruce Radial Increment and Risk to Ips typographus L. Attacks. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 34-38

Tree vigour indicated by tree ring increment could be one of the most important factors predisposing spruce trees to bark beetles attacks. Tree ring analysis shows that spruce trees attacked by Ips typographus were growing faster most of their studied life–time in comparison with un–attacked ones nearby, except the last five–year period before attack. Attacked and unattacked spruce trees with codominant crown (Kraft class 2) show the biggest differences in the annual radial increment. Spruce, killed by Ips typographus, suffered more severe drought stress a few years prior to attack and recovered growth slower and weaker than survived trees.
Key words: Norway spruce, Picea abies, spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, radial increment, cumulative growth, attack risk

 Lynikienė, J. 2006. Effect of Insecticide Arrivo on Ground Beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) Species Diversity in Scots Pine Stands. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 39-45

The research was performed in Druskininkai forest enterprise in 2001. The objective was to estimate the impact of chemical insecticide Arrivo upon ground beetle species diversity in pine stands damaged by pine beauty moth (Panolis flammea Schiff.). Test plots were established in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands and ground beetles were collected in the areas of operational aerial spray against pine beauty moth. Ground beetles were trapped with Barber ground traps. Total number of ground traps was 72. Quantitative parameters (total number of species S and total number of individuals N per season) were compiled from trap catches. Species richness and diversity were evaluated using Shannon (H) species diversity index and measure of evenness (E). Species dominance was estimated according to Simpson’s index (D) and Berger–Parker’s index d. Sorenson index was used to evaluate similarity between ground beetle species composition in variants. The catch data of ground traps were fitted to the model of logarithmic species abundance distribution. Shannon’s species diversity index (H) was 1.29 in Arrivo 40 g/ha treated variant. Species diversity index was the same in the last two variants (20 g/ha treated and untreated control, H=1.25). According to Berger–Parker’s index, the most abundant species of ground beetle comprised: in Arrivo 20 g/ha treated variant – 35 %, in Arrivo 40 g/ha treated variant – 44 % and in untreated control – 40 % of all collected ground beetles.
Key words: insecticide Arrivo, species diversity, ground beetles, pine stands

 Mäkinen, M., Tervo, L., Tuomanen, A. and Kangas, J. 2006. Triadimefon in Forestry Nurseries: Operator Exposure and the Efectiveness of Spraying Methods. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 46-50

Concentrations of triadimefon fungicide in breathing zone and on the skin were measured in order to assess the exposure of an operator treating birch seedlings with hand–held equipment in a Finnish forestry nursery. The actual exposure was found to be low, only 10 % of the acceptable operator exposure level (AOEL). When exposure was assessed using the results of potential exposure measurements,when the samplers are attached on the top of the protective clothing, the acceptable level was, however, exceeded by 850 %. Hands were the main route of exposure. Simultaneously, the effectiveness of four different spraying methods was studied by analysing the amount of triadimefon residue on leaf samples for 20 days after spraying. A hand–held sprayer has traditionally been considered to be the most effective method available for spraying fungicides. In this study, some new, safer and more economical methods of spraying were compared to hand–held application. After the test period of 20 days, the highest concentration of residue was measured on birch leaves collected from an area treated with conventional hand–held equipment. Nonetheless, the new methods are safer to the operator and probably friendlier to the environment due to less leaching of the pesticide.
Key words: Triadimefon, forestry nurseries, operator exposure, occupational safety, plant protection

 Sujetovienė, G. 2006. Understorey Vegetation of Scots Pine Stands along a Pollution Gradient Near the Nitrogen Fertilizer Plant. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 51-58

Species composition of the understorey of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests was studied along a 9 km transect running east from a nitrogen fertilizers producer plant J/V “Achema”, situated in central Lithuania. Long-term accumulation of nitrogen and sulphur in the forest ecosystems has changed plant communities. Species typical of Vaccinio–myrtillosa site type (e.g., Vaccinium myrtillus, V.vitis-idaea) were those that increased in cover with the distance from “Achema”. Many non–typical species (Calamagrostis epigejos, Chameriom angustifolium, Galeopsis tetrahit, Rubus idaeus, Stellaria graminea) preferring nutrient–rich sites increased in frequency in the vicinity of “Achema”. The cover of species which were indifferent to low soil pH (Deschampsia cespitosa, Chelidonium majus, Rumex acetosella, Athyrium filix–femina) was negatively correlated with the distance from “Achema”. According to the comparison of average Ellenberg indicator values between the sample plots and reference level, the sample plots had become more acid and nitrogen rich.
Key words: Ellenberg indicator values, forest vegetation, nitrogen deposition, Scots pine stands, species abundance

 Cesonienė, L., Daubaras, R., Areškevičiūtė, J. and Viškelis, P. 2006. Evaluation of Morphological Peculiarities, Amount of Total Phenolics and Anthocyanins in Berries of European Cranberry (Oxycoccus palustris). Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 59-63

The clones with different size, shape and colouration of a berry were selected in the strictly protected areas Cepkeliai and Zuvintas. They were propagated and evaluated under ex situ conditions in the field collection of Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University. The assessing of the average berry weight corroborated high variability. Most of the clones investigated fall into the medium – sized group (average berry weight from 0.6 to 1.0g). The high variability of total amounts of phenolics and athocyanins in the berries was detected. The clones of European cranberry on average accumulated 98.6 mg/100g of anthocyanins and 365 mg/100g of phenolics. Small and dark red berries accumulated the largest amounts of anthocyanins. The clones with the largest amounts of these compounds were selected for the permanent preservation ex situ in the collection at Kaunas Botanical Garden.
Key words: anthocyanins, clone, collection, cranberry, phenolics

 Väätäinen, K., Ala– Fossi, A., Nuutinen, Y. and Röser, D. 2006. The Effect of Single Grip Harvester’s Log Bunching on Forwarder Efficiency. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 64-69

In the CTL–harvesting method stems are bucked and cut into several timber assortments at the harvesting site by a single grip harvester. During cutting, the harvester operator can directly affect the efficiency of forwarding. Harvester and forwarder have different productivities and variations in stem size have a larger effect on the harvester than on the forwarder. In this study one professional forwarder operator loaded logs, which were cut and bunched by six different harvester operators in the same thinning stand. The piles were measured and estimated according to size, location and accessibility etc. The loading stage of forwarding was measured using a manual time study. The study revealed that the method of bunching timber assortments during cutting varied a lot among different harvester operators. The largest differences among the harvester operator’s bunching results caused about 30 % difference in loading time of piles per cubic metre. The studied calculation models from the literature revealed that 40 % time savings per cubic metre in loading phase results in 20 % time savings for the whole forwarding cycle, when the forwarding distance is 300 metres. Harvesting should be understood as a processing chain in which the first step (cutting) affects the latter step (forwarding). By optimising the size of the pile the harvester operator can improve the productivity of the harvester–forwarder chain. Furthermore, the harvester operators’ planning of the thinning track network in the stand can have a significant effect on the forwarding productivity, particularly in challenging terrains.
Key words: Forwarder, CTL harvesting, bunching, log pile, loading timber, productivity

 Sirén, M., Tanttu, V. and Ahtikoski, A. 2006. Financial Comparison of Strip Road Alternatives in the Harvesting of Pine Stands on Drained Peatlands. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 70-81

The effects of different strip road alternatives on harvesting conditions, machine productivity and harvesting costs, stand development and net income for the forest owner during the rotation period were compared in Scots pine stands on drained peatland. The study material consisted of 12 stands, in which the average distance between ditches was 40 metres. Three different marking alternatives were studied. In the first alternative, the strip roads were located 10 metres from the ditches, and the distance between the strip roads was 20 metres. Both harvester and forwarder operated on the strip roads. In the second alternative, the strip roads for forwarder were on the ditches, and a small harvester operated on strip roads and on two narrow cutting strips between the ditches. These two alternatives were compared with the third, theoretical alternative, in which there were no actual strip roads. The alternative markings resulted in different thinning removals as well as different growing stocks. The growing stocks were entered into the MOTTI stand simulator and the growth and yield for the rest of the rotation were simulated. Harvesting costs (including both cutting and forwarding) were calculated for Markings 1 and 2. The ditch network maintenance costs in stands, which were estimated to be in need of ditch network maintenance were included in the financial analyses. The Marking methods were very similar with respect to growth and yield during the rotation. However, the harvesting schedules, i.e. the number and timing of the thinnings, differed slightly between the marking methods. The average first thinning harvesting costs in Marking 1 were 4 % lower than in Marking 2. The difference is partly caused by the larger average stem size in Marking 1, and partly by the lower productivity of cutting when using the cutting strip method. However, the alternatives did not differ statistically significantly from each other.The results for the strip road alternatives were very similar with respect to financial performance. This result allows us to plan strip roads that are more specific to the site conditions without losing too much profitability. If there is a need for ditch network maintenance, Marking 2 is recommended. A considerable proportion of the first thinning removal comes from the strip roads, and this removal has an important effect on the harvesting costs. In this study thinning harvesters were used in the thinnings. However, medium–sized harvesters or harvester–forwarders can also be used in Marking 1. Thus, peatland harvesting can also mainly be carried out with the machinery used on mineral soil sites.
Key words: Peatlands, stand–level simulator, growth and yield, peatland harvesting

 Hörnfeldt, R. and Ingemarson, F. 2006. Evaluation of Silvicultural Practices from a Multipurpose Perspective. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 82-93

Appropriate silvicultural practices, based on the objectives of forest owners, should be incorporated into forest management plans to promote sustainability. The main objective of this study was to compare the suitability of different silvicultural practices with respect to the multiple objectives of small–scale forest owners. In addition, a method for evaluating the results of research within the field is presented. A model describing the objectives of private forest owners was used to compare different silvicultural practices. A literature review was conducted and the appropriateness of different practices and objectives was analysed using matrixes. The results indicated that the practices evaluated have the potential to allow the development of forestry with multiple functions: thinning and successive felling appeared to be most suitable. Passive practices were less well adapted to the multiple objectives of private forest owners. It is important to continue collating and reviewing the available data, especially relating to forestry practices not commonly used in Scandinavia.
Key words: Amenities, conservation, economic efficiency, forest management plans, forest owners, objectives, multipurpose forestry, silvicultural practices, utilities

 Laitila, J. and Asikainen, A. 2006. Energy Wood Logging from Early Thinnings by Harwarder Method. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 94-102

During the last decade harwarders have been developed for both industrial roundwood and energy wood harvesting. This article looks into the productivity results obtained by a conventional forwarder equipped with the Moipu 400 E energy wood harwarder grip in thinning a young stand. Productivity functions for the harwarder logging were formulated by applying a regression analysis in which the harvesting conditions (tree volume, cutting removal, forwarding distance etc.) were independent variables. The logging productivity of small trees with branches using the harwarder method, was 3.3 mł/Eo–h (effective working hour), when the tree volume was 25 dmł, accumulation of energy wood 50 mł per hectare, load volume 6.2 mł and forwarding distance 250 m. Felling and bunching represented 45 % of the energy wood harwarders effective working time. Making a strip road took 18 % of the total time consumption and loading of felled trees 17 %. Time consumption of forwarding was 6 % loaded and 5 % unloaded. Moving during cutting and loading and unloading at landing represented both 5 % of the effective working time.
Key words: young stand thinning, harwarder, energy wood, productivity functions, logging

 Lang, M., Jürjo, M., Adermann, V. and Korjus, H. 2006. Integrated Approach for Quantitative Assessment of Illegal Forest Fellings in Estonia. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 103-109

Change detection from multitemporal Landsat TM and Landsat ETM+ images was combined with fieldwork and GIS analysis to estimate the share of the illegally felled timber in Estonia for the period ranging from 1999 to 2002. A sample of changed areas (667) was selected from digital change map for the field inspection and detailed analysis. Map layers were created to represent the extent of problems found in the field. Finally, the problem layers were intersected to discriminate between different rule violation combinations and analyse their overlapping. A regression function was developed on the National Forest Inventory data for wood volume estimation. The results showed that for 9.4% of the felling areas the forest management declaration (FMD) was not submitted. 10.3% of the felled timber volume was related at least to one violation of forest felling regulations and 6.3% of the felled timber was connected to the environmental damages and unsustainable forest management. Rather high share of timber (3.6%) that was officially related to the forest theft may indicate the highly problematic issues of legalising (for the forest owner) the illegal logging. Forest management declarations are unreliable source for estimating the state level total volume felled, but they can be probably used to estimate the total logging area.
Key words: change detection, illegal forest felling, satellite images, forest management

 Cedro, A. 2006. Comparative Dendroclimatological Studies of the Impact of Temperature and Rainfall on Pinus nigra Arnold and Pinus sylvestris in Northwestern Poland. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 110-116

The research focused on two pine species; the native one for the investigated area – Pinus sylvestris, and species introduced from S Europe – Pinus nigra. The analysed trees grow in the municipal forests in Szczecin (NW Poland). The chronology established for the black pine spans 108 years (1895-2002), and the master pattern for the Scots pine consists of 115 annual growth rings (1886-2000). The constructed chronologies were used as a basis for dendroclimatological analyses: response function and signature years. Both analyses have demonstrated different relations between the increments and climate at the investigated pine species, in spite of high similarity of the discussed chronologies (Gl = 71.9%, t = 5.21). The native pinus display high sensitivity on thermal conditions in winter (especially February) and in the beginning of spring, whereas the amount of rainfall in the vegetation season proves to be of lower importance. On the contrary, the cambium activity of the black pine is highly dependent on the amount of rainfall in the vegetation season (positive significant values of correlation and regression for May, June and July), whereas winter (February) thermal conditions may be considered as an additional factor affecting the tree growth.
Key words: tree – ring width, dendroclimatology, climatic conditions, signature years, response function, Pinus nigra Arnold, Pinus sylvestris L., NW Poland

 Läänelaid, A. and Nurkse, A. 2006. Dating of a 17th Century Painting by Tree Rings of Baltic Oak. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 117-121

Tree rings of an oak (Quercus robur L.) panel with painting of the Dutch Hans van Essen, a ’Still life with a lobster’, established the period of origin of that piece of art deposited in the Estonian Art Museum in Tallinn. The ring width sequence was compared with Baltic oak tree-ring chronologies by T. Wazny and J. Hillam and I. Tyers. These references gave the last annual ring of the painted panel to be from AD 1600. High similarity of the tree–ring series shows that the oak of the panel is of Baltic origin. The outermost rings of the oak tree, including the sapwood, have been cut off. The approximate number of sapwood rings of oaks is known. It points the probable painting time between AD 1617 and 1623. This dating fits into the life years of Hans van Essen (1587 or 1589 to 1642 or 1648).
Key words: annual rings,oak panel,H. van Essen, painting, 17th century, dendrochronological dating

 Janiszewski, P. and Kolasa, S. 2006. Zoometric Characteristics of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L.) Stags from Northern Poland. Baltic Forestry, 12 (1): 122-127 (Brief Report)

Carcass weight, antler weight and zoometric measurements of 98 Red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) stags harvested in northern Poland were analysed in the study. In order to compare their carcass parameters, the stags were divided by age into six classes. A statistical analysis of results provided the basis for describing model red deer stags representative of particular age groups. The average carcass weight of stags in six classes was the following: stags aged two years – 67.64 kg, stags aged three to four years – 82.17 kg, stags aged five to six years – 102.40 kg, stags aged seven to eight years – 122.13 kg, stags aged nine to ten years – 143.44 kg, stags aged 11 years and older – 149.60 kg. Antler weight ranged from 0.62 kg in two–year–old stags to about 6 kg in the oldest ones. All carcass traits examined in the study were interrelated, as confirmed by highly significant coefficients of correlation (r↬.6). This suggests that they are good indicators of body conformation in red deer stags.
Key words: Cervus elaphus, carcass weight, measurements, antlers


 Areškevičienė, R., Žvingila, D., Gabrilavičius, R. and Kuusienė, S. 2005. The Estimation of Genetic Diversity within and between Lithuanian Populations of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) by using RAPD. Baltic Forestry, 11 (2): 2-8

The genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of eight Lithuanian populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) were studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA method. Seven random oligonucleotide primers produced 74 scorable fragments. Differences in the level of DNA polymorphism among populations were established. Out of the 74 amplified loci scored, 69 (93.2%) were polymorphic among all studied populations. The highest RAPD polymorphism (79.73%) and observed number of alleles (1.8) was obtained for Alytus population, but the highest effective number of alleles (1.453), Shanon’s index (0.391) and Nei’s gene diversity (0.262) were found for Telsiai population. According to Nei’s genetic distances the most geneticaly close are Dubrava and Rokiskis populations, whereas the most distant - Rokiskis and Plunge. The results showed the high intra-populational (90.35%) and comparatively low inter-populational (9.65%) genetic variation. The average number of migrants per generation (Nm) among populations was 4.7
Key words: RAPD, Picea abies, population, genetic diversity

 Goncharenko, G., Kurm, M., Birgelis,J., Maaten,T., Tamm,U. and Shevchenko, L. 2005. Isoenzymes’ structure of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Natural Populations in Estonia, Latvia and Byelorussia. Baltic Forestry, 11 (2): 9-19

Using isoenzymes as genetic markers in studies of Norway spruce populations situated in four natural stands in Estonia, five in Latvia and six in Byelorussia, an evaluation of the genetic resources of the populations was given. Northwards from Byelorussia the parameters characterising genetic diversity increase: polymorphism P99 from 67.3% in Byelorussia to 78% in Estonia, and the number of alleles per locus from 2.13 to 2.41 respectively. Empirical heterozygosity increased from 17.8% to 19.7% respectively. Heterozygosity parameters varied the least between the Latvian populations. The mean genetic diversity indices for the entire Balto-Byelorussian region were as follows: polymorphism P99 73.1%, number of alleles per locus 2.25 and empirical heterozygosity 18.7%. It appeared from polymorphism analysis that virtually all stands in the natural habitat of Norway spruce in Estonia, Latvia and Byelorussia have sufficient genetic resources for restoring their gene pools.
Key words: Norway spruce, genetic structure, diversity, isoenzymes, differentiation

 Luoranen, J., Zhang, G. and Smolander, H. 2005. Production of even-sized hybrid aspen plants from root cuttings: transplanting, height grading and planting dates. Baltic Forestry, 11 (2): 20-28

At present in Finnish nurseries, hybrid aspens are reproduced from root cuttings by transplanting the sprouted cuttings to the large plugs (trays with 380-400 cm3 cell volume). Sprouting time of cuttings varies within and between clones a lot. This causes problems in the production of aspen plants: the large height variation within a plant batch in nurseries and the high proportion of short plants (with minimum height of 40 cm). To produce more even-sized batches, plants were graded into height categories twice: first when transplanted them into small plugs and then into larger plugs. This procedure reduced the variation in the final height of graded batches in comparison with the batches transplanted directly into the large-volume containers. The variation in the height of hybrid aspens did not exceed the variation in a reference silver birch batch, however. The use of short plants for plug-to-plug transplanting changed the growth rhythm of the plants, resulting in later cessation of the height growth. One solution to the problems is to plant hybrid aspens in summer at the time of plug-to-plug transplanting. The height growth of these plants increased and the shoot tip dieback inhibited in comparison with plants that were grown for a longer period in the nursery, frozen-stored and then planted in the spring or early summer of the following year.
Key words: grading, height, hybrid aspen, planting, Populus, root cutting

 Jansons, Â. and Baumanis, I. 2005. Growth Dynamics of Scots Pine Geographical Provenances in Latvia. Baltic Forestry, 11 (2): 29-37

Results from geographical provenance trials (totally 40 foreign provenances from Poland, Eastern Germany, Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine) in three test locations in Latvia have been evaluated. For analysis only superior trees (10% of the highest trees in each provenance) have been chosen. Results indicate that credible evaluation (observed trend does not change with increasing tree age) of survival for provenance groups from different regions can be done at the age of 6 years, for growth traits – at 15 years, but growth performance of individual provenances vary considerably up to the age of 28 years. Provenance influence on height and diameter growth is highest, exceeding regional influence even three times for height and twice for diameter. Results of geographical Scots pine trial are site-dependent. Provenances from the same region tested in 3 different test locations in Latvia at the same age demonstrate differences in survival up to 16% and in yield more than double. Average growth and survival of Eastern German and Polish Scots pine provenances decrease when comparing the areas with mild, maritime climate (Liepâja and to a lesser extent Zvirgzde) and the areas with harsher, more continental climate (Kalsnava). The decrease is sharper for Eastern German provenances.In Kalsnava, the performance of Polish and East German provenances differs considerably from the general trend, described in the literature. We suggested that the Kalsnava area could be taken as an indicator for a borderline for growth patterns of transferred Scots pine provenances.
Key words: Pinus sylvestris L., provenance trial, growth dynamics, quality, provenance influence

 Kairiūkštis, L. and Juodvalkis, A. 2005. The Theoretical Fundamentals of Forming of the Most Productive Stands. Baltic Forestry, 11 (2): 38-50

The paper deals with the development of the theory of the most productive Picea abies Karst., Pinus sylvestris L., Quercus robur L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Betula pendula L., pure and mixed stands, the utilization of solar energy by trees and storeys, the interaction between trees, their productivity, optimal stand density, the influence of intermediate fellings on the increment of trees and stands. Also the construction of the models of the most productive stands and the development of the standards of intermediate fellings are analysed. For this the data gleaned over 30 years in more than 500 permanent experimental plots have been used. The revealed new phenomenon of the stress effect of trees while forming ecosystem enabled the density of forming young stands to be optimized according to the critical limit of crowns approach while the density of stands according to the maximally possible projection area of a storey and an optimal degree of crown overlapping. It ensures the largest increment of the most valuable wood in ontogenesis of ecosystem. It has been determined that the more the surface of a storey resembles the stairs, the more the solar energy penetrates into the stand. The most productive trees (class A) use the solar energy most effectively for the increment of wood. The most significant productivity of stands is achieved in case the stocking of a storey is maximal, the trees in the storey are maximally productive and the distance between them (crown overlapping) is optimal. In the paper tree prototype – models of the most productive stands and the standards of their forming by intermediate fellings are presented. It has been ascertained that at a certain interval of stand age and thinning intensities the increment of thinned stands exceeds that of stands where thinnings have not been applied. With increasing age of stands the feasibility to enlarge stand increment by regulating density is more seldom noted because stocking augments, up to which it is feasible to thin stands without diminishing their increment, in comparison to the increment of stands where thinnings have not been applied.
Key words: critical limit of crown approach, the effect of stress, maximal stand productivity, use of solar energy, optimal stand density, intermediate fellings, thinning intensity.

 Kojola, S., Penttilä, T. and Laiho, R. 2005. First Commercial Thinnings in Peatland Pine Stands: Effect of Timing on Fellings and Removals. Baltic Forestry, 11 (2): 51-58

The aim of this study was to examine the fellings and removals and their dimension distributions in first commercial thinnings in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands growing on drained peatlands, when the cuttings are carried out at different stages of thinning maturity. The reference for standard thinning maturity was defined as in the present guidelines for silviculture on upland sites in non-industrial, privately owned pine forests in Finland. Experimental and/or simulated thinnings were applied in altogether fifteen stands representing a wide range in site productivity, climate, and time elapsed since first ditching, and premature (7 cases), mature (11), and over-mature (15) stages for thinning. The average stemwood volumes of fellings were 51, 69, and 92 m3ha-1 and those of harvest removals 36, 59, and 84 m3ha-1 for premature, mature, and over-mature cases, respectively. The removals from stands mature and over-mature for thinning were large enough to enable a commercially profitable harvesting operation in most cases, unlike those from the premature stands where the fellings were barely harvestable and consisted of clearly smaller stems. Considering the obvious trends of increasing supply and simultaneously decreasing price competitiveness of pine pulpwood, our results do not support early thinning unless absolutely necessary from the silvicultural point-of-view. Retarding the thinning until the stage when thinning maturity criteria are actually met, i.e. till stand dominant height of ca. 15 m or even further, would result in markedly better harvesting profitability and hence enhance the implementation of thinnings as a part of the best management practices of peatland stands.
Key words: Pinus sylvestris, peatland forestry, silviculture, first thinning, intermediate cuttings, drainage

 Ozolinčius, R., Varnagirytė, I.,Armolaitis, K. and Karltun, E. 2005. Initial Effects of Wood Ash Fertilization on Soil, Needle and Litterfall Chemistry in a Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Stand. Baltic Forestry, 11 (2): 59-67

Initial effects of wood ash and/or N fertilization were investigated in a field experiment located in a 38-year-old Scots pine stand on a Haplic Arenosol in Kačerginė, Lithuania. There were in total six treatments, three levels of wood ash addition (1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 t ha-1), one level of N addition (180 kg N ha-1), one combined treatment (2.5 t ha-1 of wood ash and 180 kg N ha-1) and one untreated control. The treatments were repeated in four blocks. The pHCaCl2 of the O horizon increased from 3.45 (control) to 6.15 for t he highest ash dose and exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ increased significantly (p<0.001). There were no changes in the mineral topsoil (0-5 cm) for the acidity but exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ increased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the control for the highest ash treatment. Soil solution concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ increased at 20 cm depth as a result of the ash treatment but at 50 cm depth only Mg2+ concentration was higher than the control. Leaching of NO3- and NH4+ increased in the N treatment compared to the control but no effect of the ash treatment was observed. The wood ash increased the concentration of Ca in the current year but not one-year-old needles 6 months after the application. N concentration in the current and one-year-old needles and even litterfall increased as a result of the N treatment. Ca uptake seemed to be stimulated by high N availability as indicated by high Ca concentrations in needles from the N treatment. There were no other indications of interactions between the ash and N treatments.
Key words: wood ash, Scots pine, Arenosols, soil solution, needles, litterfall, chemical composition.

 Hytönen, J. 2005. Effects of Liming on the Growth of Birch and Willow on cut-away Peat Substrates in Greenhouse. Baltic Forestry, 11 (2): 68-74

The effects of liming (doses 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 tonnes/ha of dolomite lime) on the growth and nutrition of birch (Betula pendula Roth, Betula pubescens Ehr.) and short-rotation willows (Salix x dasyclados, Salix viminalis) were studied in a greenhouse on peat obtained from two cut-away peatland areas. Peat was NPK-fertilized using either raw phosphate or superphosphate as phosphorus source. An increase in liming dose up to 48 tonnes/ha increased peat pH asymptotically from 3.5 to 6.0 and from 3.9 to 6.7 in the two peats. The substrate’s pH did not affect the biomass production of silver and downy birch. Willows did not grow at all in the acidic Aitoneva peat without the substrate being limed. Willow growth was best when substrate pH was higher than 5.0. Liming decreased the foliar phosphorus and boron concentrations in birch and boron concentrations in willow. Rock phosphate and superphosphate gave almost equal results in birch growth, but willows grew significantly better when fertilized with superphosphate. Downy birch had significantly higher foliar potassium, calcium, magnesium and boron concentrations than silver birch. Salix viminalis had significantly higher foliar concentrations of phosphorus, potassium and boron than S. x dasyclados.
Key words: Cut-away peatland, liming, downy birch, silver birch, willow, Salix, phosphorus

 Grigaliūnas,V. and Ruseckas, J. 2005. The Effect of Soil Properties on Natural Forest Regeneration on Drained Fens. Baltic Forestry, 11 (2): 75-83

The objective of this study was to assess the success of natural regeneration in cutovers on drained fens (eutrophic peatland) depending on the soil properties and the depth to the water table in the forests of Birzai and Panevezys state forest enterprises in Lithuania. The assessments were carried out in 100-300 m long transects allocated perpendicularly to the drainage ditches. 131 water wells were drilled to measure the depth to the water table and 131 sample plots of 10 × 10 m were established. The soil properties were assessed in the soil chemistry laboratory. The results showed that natural forest regeneration on drained cutblocks in fens was affected by the following factors: the depth to the water table (HV.01) (measured at the beginning of the growth period), the pH level, the potential hydrolytic soil acidity (HA), the base saturation and the thickness of the peat layer. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the dependence of the number of regenerating trees (N) on the main factors (HV.01 and HA): N = 168059.7 – 3446.5 HV.01 – 35.180 HA; (R2 = 0.8, F = 7.51, p < 0.0007). The maximum critical depth to the water table (allowing sufficient number of regenerating trees) was mainly affected by the subsoil texture of the shallow peat soils (HSs– ph) and was 18.0 ± 3.7 cm, 26.5 ± 6.6 cm, 26.6 ± 3.9 cm, 29.6 ± 6.6 cm and 42.2 ± 9.6 cm in the soils with subsoil of gravel, sand, sandy loam, light loam and medium loam, respectively. The mean hydrolytic acidity of the soil in the cutblocks with sufficient regeneration was 820.99 ± 56.05 mekv/kg, which was significantly lower than in the cutblocks with insufficient forest regeneration (ΔHA = 212.29 ± 94.99 mekv/kg, t = 2.23, p = 0.038). In conclusion, to improve the natural regeneration of forests in the clear-cuttings on low peatland soils, the soil water regime should be improved by the technical means to maintain the optimum soil moisture (mainly by damming the ditches) and, in soils of very high acidity (HA <1100 mekv/kg), alkaline enrichment may be needed.
Key words: cutovers, drainage, natural regeneration, peat soils, water table.

 Augustaitis, A., Augustaitienė, I., Kliučius, A., Bartkevičius, E., Mozgeris, G., Šopauskienė, D., Eitminavičiūtė, I., Arbačiauskas, K., Mažeikytė, R. and Baužienė, I. 2005. Forest Biota under Changing Concentration in Acidifying Compounds in the Air and Their Deposition. Baltic Forestry, 11 (2): 84-93

Effects of acid deposition on forest ecosystems despite a drastic decrease in sulphur emission and deposition at the end of the 1990s are still among the most significant ecological issues. The key reason for this is that atmospheric concentrations of ammonium and nitrate which have a tendency to increase in the last period became the main acidifying compounds of precipitation. These changes in acid deposition resulted in main objectives of the presented study which were to estimate the effect of rain acidity and atmospheric deposition of pollutants on crown defoliation and diversity of soil microarthropods, stream macrobenthos and small mammals (rodents) on territories under changing regional pollution level. Investigation was carried out in 3 Lithuanian Integrated Monitoring Stations over the period 1994-2004. The obtained data indicated that lower life forms were more affected than higher. Acid deposition was shown to have the most significant effect on pine tree defoliation as well as on the diversity of soil microarthropods and diversity of stream macroinvertebrates and least on the diversity of small mammals. These results have indicated that regional pollution level which is below critical level for forest ecosystem has a significant effect on the biota.
Keywords: acid deposition, crown defoliation, small mammals, soil microathropodes, stream macroinvertebrates, correlation analysis.

 Belova, O. 2005. Foraging Character of Deer Cervidae and Brown Hare Lepus europaeus on the Littoral Area of Pure Pine Forests in Lithuania. Baltic Forestry, 11 (2): 94-108

The main herbivorous mammals as Cervidae go in with hares Leporidae into general trophic chain as primary consumers. The basic interaction between these animals and forest woody vegetation mostly evidences in the feeding relations. Therefore the feeding character in herbivorous animals is the important item of this study. Limited factors could come drivers of the animal impact to forest. On the other hand, the interaction between animals and forest woody plants requires not only elements of this interaction but also an environment where this interaction comes to pass. Therefore, the habitat preference should be considered. We aimed to reveal the foraging character of deer and hares, and assess the animal - forest woody plants’ interaction by considering the above-mentioned notes. We employed the integrated method of belt transects (sample unit is 100 x 4 metres) and sample plots (50 x 2 metres, or 100m2). The method of pellet group count has been used to assess the number and distribution of the local populations of investigated animal species, the age structure and sex ratio of local populations of moose and red deer, and age structure of roe deer local population. We identified animal age and sex by pellet groups. Woody plants and their shoots within the feeding space of animals (that is from h = 0,1 to 2,2 m) were counted dividing damaged and untouched shoots. Browsing intensity I, and the share of woody species in animal diet P, were calculated by the consumption of all species of forest woody vegetation. Habitat preference of stands of the different age classes, composition and forest site types were estimated. The total number of sample plots is 504, and the total length of the route is 79.9 km on the study area of 2,736 hectares. The specific climatic and geomorphologic diversity of landscape and local conditions as well as the absence of agricultural landed property determine the low carrying capacity and specific structure of the local fauna and their adaptations, as the mixed forest-forest edge ecotype in hares and forest ecotype in roe deer. The coexistence of forest plants and animals is directly and indirectly influenced not only by the determined abiotic and biotic factors but also by human factors including forest management, hunting and its restrictions, supplemental feeding in winter, picking of mushrooms and berries, and other recreational activities. The mentioned activities are particularly obvious on the study territory while the forests are managed by the separate regime that is approved by the legal acts for protected areas. The animal density is less than the permissible density in pure pine forests while there is the aberrant sex ratio and age structure in local populations. That is the indicator of disfavour in living conditions. Habitat preference values and plant consumption intensity varied temporally depending on the stand composition, forest site type and forest age as well as variability of the main weather parameters. The main criteria of the animal-plant interaction are the consumption of shoots and the browsing intensity of the main woody species. The shoot consumption in conifers more than 40-50% and more than 20-30% in deciduous species is the criterion of the irreversible decline in the certain species (e.g. Populus tremula, Frangula alnus).
Key words: herbivores, pure pine forests, protected area, population parameters, habitat preference, browsing intensity, level of shoot consumption.

 Špinkytė-Bačkaitienė, R. 2005. Habitat Use by the Wolf (Canis lupus L.) in North Lithuania. Baltic Forestry, 11 (2): 109-115

Habitat use by wolves was researched with the aim to understand their visiting frequency of different landscape sites, priorities for resting place selection and the influence of anthropogenic factors on wolves’ activity. Snow tracking of wolves was conducted through the winters of 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 with weather conditions permitting. With the use of GPS recording wolves were tracked 83.7 kilometres. Results indicate habitat use by wolves is spread throughout the landscape; forest (43%), agricultural land (24.8%), road (12.3%), forest edge (10.6%) and frozen waterways (5.2%). Wolves are not restricted to any landscape type. However, they prefer forest stands over 20 years of age and rarely pass through clearcut areas. Frequently wolves visited mixed soft deciduous stands with spruce. Wolves gave preference to young stands as resting sites. The highest number of recorded resting sites was between 2580 - 3400 m from a village and the mean distance from the forest edge was 200 m. Wolf tracks were found 50 - 300 m from homesteads.
Key words: wolf, habitat use, tracking, forest stand, resting place, territory marking, behaviour.


  Kairiūkštis, L., Jaskelevičius, B. and Saladis, J. 2005. Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects of Wood Fuel Use in Lithuania. Baltic Forestry, 11 (1): 2-12

The purpose of this study was to assess supply and demand for wood fuel as energy sources in Lithuania and to analyse economic, social and environmental effects of their extensive use. As a result it was stated that the quantities of wood fuel consumed constantly increased. Using of firewood and wood residues for generating energy capital saved for unimported fuel is estimated at 36.3 million EURO (2003). The new suggested wood cutting technology with wood fuel production allows creating of at least 350 work places for each million mł of wood fuel. Substitution of fuel oil by wood fuel improves the quality of the environment because of reduction of SOX by 1.451 kt/PJ and carbon dioxide by 78.8 kt/PJ.
Key words: fuel wood resources, consumption, substitution of fuel oil, socio-economic, environmental effects

 Möttönen, V. and Luostarinen, K. 2005. Discolouration of Sawn Birch (Betula pendula) Timber from Plantation Forests during Drying: The Role of Proanthocyanidins (Condensed Tannins) in Discolouration of Birch Wood. Baltic Forestry, 11 (1): 13-20

In the previous paper on discolouration of sawn birch timber from plantation forests that had been published in Baltic Forestry, 2004 10 (2), the effect of external factors (growing site, felling season, log storage) was discussed. In this paper, the role of proanthocyanidins in discolouration during drying is investigated. Conventional warm-air drying gave the highest concentration of proanthocyanidin in the wood. Storage of wood as logs increased the proanthocyanidin concentration in both fresh and dried wood. Proanthocyanidins obviously polymerised and oxidized to coloured compounds during drying, as the proanthocyanidin concentration was found to be lowest in the darkest reddish wood. The combination of drying temperature and prevailing moisture content of wood during the drying process seemed to be very important for formation of coloured phenolic compounds.
Key words: Proanthocyanidins, silver birch, wood discolouration, wood drying.

 Malinen, J., Maltamo, M. and Verkasalo, E. 2005. Stem and Wood Properties of Norway Spruce on Drained Peatlands and Mineral Forest Lands in Southern Finland. Baltic Forestry, 11 (1): 21-38

Norway spruce from drained peatlands is of growing importance for forestry and forest industries in Finland, Sweden and Norway, and it has an essential role in Baltic countries and Russia, as well. In this paper, the level of and between-tree, between-stand and vertical within-tree variations in the technical quality of stems and selected morphological and physical properties of wood were studied on mature Norway spruce in naturally regenerated stands on drained peatlands, compared to naturally regenerated and planted stands on mineral forest lands, in southern Finland. In the analysis, breast height diameter and sub-region (four of them) were considered the covariants. The properties were examined separately for the vertical sections of butt logs, other logs and small-sized saw logs. Concluded from the results, Norway spruce from drained peatlands provides at least a moderate technical potential in the butt log section for sawmill and plywood industries in southern parts of Finland. The issues of uncertainty concern mainly internal dry knots and compression wood, and possibly the heterogeneity of wood material within a log. The industrial value of upper log sections seems considerably lower. Sub-regional effects seem to be largely insignificant within the southern-finnish climatic conditions, after considering the main effects of tree size, soil type and way of regeneration.
Key words: , technical quality, wood properties, saw logs, peatlands, variation.

 Šaudytė, S., Karazija, S. and Belova, O. 2005. An Approach to Assessment of Naturalness for Forest Stands in Lithuania. Baltic Forestry, 11 (1): 39-45

Forest policies are developing towards achieving higher ecological and nature protection standards. European COST action E27 “Protected forest areas in Europe – analysis and harmonisation (PROFOR)” highlights the need of more precise assessment of forest naturalness on a national level. In this paper official existing classifications related to forest naturalness in Lithuania are discussed and the shortcomings of such classifications are highlighted. We presented an analysis of the existing situation and also proposed six definitions of different forest naturalness classes with their describing criteria.
Key words: level of forest naturalness, forest stands, natural development.

 Stasytytė, I., Pakalnis, R. and Vitas, A. 2005. Dendrochronological Investigation on Scots Pine Timber Extracted from Lake Stirniai, Northeastern Lithuania. Baltic Forestry, 11 (1): 46-53

Dendrochronological research has been carried out on subfossil pine timber found in Lake Stirniai, northeastern Lithuania. As a result, the tree ring width floating chronology spanning 213 years was compiled. Radiocarbon dating of the samples has shown that pines lived in the transition between Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age (from 1103±80AD to 1315±80AD). Research has revealed that pines grew on the peat soil, likely on Pinetum carico-sphagnosum forest type. It was discovered that the water level of Lake Stirniai in the Medieval Warm Period probably was bellow for about 1.0 m than nowadays. Analysis on cyclic recurrence of the annual radial growth fluctuations of pinewood growing on boggy soil along Stirniai lakeside in the 12th-14th centuries enabled to determine at least 6 cycles longer than 10 tears.
Key words: climate, Little Ice Age, Medieval Warm Period, radial growth, radiocarbon dating, Scots pine, subfossil timber.

 Seemen, H. and Jäärats, A. 2005. The Quality of Pine and Spruce Planting Stock in Estonia. Baltic Forestry, 11 (1): 54-63

The present research is a comparative analysis of how the main quality indices of cell-grown and bare-rooted planting stock - plant height, root collar diameter and their ratio, above-ground biomass, below-ground biomass and their ratio - conform to the existing planting stock standard in Estonia. Data were collected from the nurseries in different state forest regions in the period 2001-2003. Pine and spruce cell-grown plants were grown in Ecopot containers with the density of 400 plants per m2, bare-rooted pine seedlings and spruce transplants were grown using traditional field-grown technology. The mean height of the same species container-grown and bare-rooted plants differed relatively little (7-14%). The root collar diameter of pine container-grown stock formed 69% and the corresponding index of spruce container-grown stock 51% from the root collar diameter of the same species bare-rooted plants. The above-ground mass of container-grown spruce stock was on average 4.7 times smaller than the corresponding number of bare-rooted transplants, the relative difference between above-ground mass of pine container-grown stock and bare-rooted seedlings was smaller (2 times). Beside measurements the proportional development of different plant parts is essential as well. It turned out that the root mass of the 2-year-old bare-rooted pine seedlings was relatively small compared with above-ground biomass (above-ground and below-ground dry mass ratio was 4.9-6.4), which may decrease plant establishment in cultivating. Spruce container-grown stock had too high height and root collar diameter ratio (6.6-8.3), which make plants in cultivation less resistant to physical damage factors.
Key words: Scots pine, Norway spruce, bare-rooted plants, cell-grown plants, quality of plants.

 Aučina, A., Riepšas, E., Danusevičius, J., Danusevičius, D., Gabrilavičius, R., Skridaila, A., Balčiūnienė, L., Žilinskaitė, S., Meidus, E., Meiduvienė, A., Ryliškis, D., Kuisys, T. and Dapkūnienė, S. 2005. Eco-genetic Variation of Development and Adaptedness Traits of Seedlings of Local Scots Pine Populations in Lithuania. Baltic Forestry, 11 (1): 64-72

Reaction of progenies (seedlings) of different Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations at the juvenile stage on new climatic and microclimatic conditions was investigated. Differences in the development and adaptation parameters of seedlings of three most distant according to continentally (Telsiai, Labanoras, Veisiejai) populations from different geographical regions of Lithuania were revealed and genetic heritability of these traits was established. By variance analysis, the influence of climatic and microclimatic conditions of the environment on the general variation of traits of the seedlings has been found out. Due to a greater trait genetic variation, the selection of families inside populations can be more effective than between populations. In favorable microclimatic conditions (in the greenhouse) variation of growth and biological productivity parameters of seedlings is higher, therefore selection would be more effective on population, family and individual levels. Seedlings of the most continental Labanoras population surpass the representatives of Telđiai population formed in the maritime conditions and the southern Veisiejai population of medium continentally according to growth and biological productivity parameters. The Telđiai population was distinguished by-law growth and lower biological productivity. The survival of seedlings of different populations decreases from the north to the south: the seedlings of Telđiai population formed in the maritime conditions according to this parameter have an advantage over the representatives of the most continental (Labanoras) and medium continental (Veisiejai) populations. Different adaptation character of individual populations was observed. The general adaptation is typical of Labanoras population, because their progenies grow well in all regions. Low general adaptation character is typical of Telsiai population, that’s why it suitable to grow only in place of its origin. This population has a rather high phenotypic plasticity, because it has the greatest reaction to the changes of climatic conditions.
Key words: Scots pine seedlings, provenance, geographical transfer, genetic variation, heritability, adaptation, phenotypic plasticity.

 Heikkilä, J.Ylimartimo, M. and Mäkinen, P. 2005. Time Consumption, Work Quality and Cost of Mechanised Precommercial Thinning. Baltic Forestry, 11 (1): 73-79

Costs of precommercial thinning (PCT) have increased quite steadily in Finland for a long time. Therefore effective PCT methods must be developed. Although there is still development potential in manual PCT, mechanisation has been considered as a solution to decrease costs of PCT. Machines haven't become common in PCT yet. The most important reason for this is low productivity resulting in high operation costs. If mechanised PCT becomes real business for entrepreneurs and machine manufacturers, technical problems are most likely to be solved. In this study two prototypes of boom-mounted cleaning devices were studied. Prototypes were manufactured by private entrepreneurs. Productivity, work quality and operation costs of these cleaning devices were estimated. Average time consumption of both machines was around 7.5 effective hours/ha in a pine-dominated stand with total density of around 7 000 stems/ha and average cutting diameter of stems around 5 cm. Costs of mechanised PCT in this study were over two times higher than those of manual work.
Key words: mechanised precommercial thinning, cleaning, cleaning device, time study.

 Mizaraitė, D. and Mizaras, S. 2005. Empirically Based Grouping of Private Forest Owners in Lithuania. Baltic Forestry, 11 (1): 80-87

In Lithuania there are 231.878 private forest owners (2005-01-01). They differ according to age, sex, education, social status, area of private property and other characteristics. All these characteristics determine the goals and problems of private forest owners. Even though there is a great variety, it is possible to group forest owner according to their attitudes towards the management of their forest property. Based on a survey among Lithuanian private forest owners four types of owners were identified: (1) businessmen, (2) multi-objective owners, (3) consumers, (4) ecologists. The article presents a description of these typological groups.
Key words: forest owner, survey, cluster analysis, groups of forest owners.

 Toppinen, A., Vitanen, J., Leskinen, P. and Toivonen, R. 2005. Dynamics of Roundwood Prices in Estonia, Finland and Lithuania. Baltic Forestry, 11 (1): 88-96

This study analyses the development of Estonian, Finnish and Lithuanian roundwood markets using nominal monthly time series of delivery prices of pine, spruce and birch sawlogs and pulpwood from the time period of January 1996 – July 2004. The question whether any long run relationships between the wood assortment and species prices in the three countries exist is studied using the Johansen’s co-integration method. The Estonian and Lithuanian roundwood prices have approached the Finnish price levels, but long run equilibrium relation-ships were only found between spruce sawlogs in Estonia and Lithuania, and in Finland and Lithuania. These results indicate that the roundwood markets in the Baltic Sea Area are not yet integrated with the exception of spruce sawlogs. Thus, the regional roundwood supply and demand characteristics still play an important role in these countries.
Key words: Baltic Sea Area, roundwood markets, cointegration analysis, long run economic relationships.

 Lazdinis, M., Carver, A., Schmithüsen, F. and Vilkriste, L. 2005. Elite Concerns in Forest Sectors of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Baltic Forestry, 11 (1): 97-104

To understand the forest policy and decision making processes and enable successful implementation of development and environmental conservation objectives, it is necessary to learn about the current issues and problems in the forest sector. This study focuses on forest sectors of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (the Baltic States). Using the in-depth interview technique, the study learns about the opinions of leading individuals (elite) in the forest sectors of the Baltic States regarding the issues of concern in the forest management of their respective countries. This study finds that the largest concentration of issues of concern in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania is in an area of institutional failures. Therefore, in facilitating forest development of these countries attention should be focused on the interface between policy failures and actual resource problems. The perceptions on issues of concern were found to differ between the stakeholders in general and the elite representatives.
Key words: forestry, forest policy, Baltic States, elite, experts.