Laitila, J., Kärhä, K. and Jylhä, P. 2009. Time Consumption Models and Parameters for Off- and On-road Transportation of Whole-Tree Bundles.  Baltic Forestry 15 (1): 105-114

The absence of the empirical time study models and parameters for whole-tree bundle forwarding and truck transportation has been problematic when comparing the alternative supply systems for integrated pulpwood and energy wood procurement. In the present study, time consumption models were constructed for the forwarding of whole-tree bundles by applying regression analyses to empirical time study data. The time studies related to on-road transportation were focused on comparing the terminal times spent on the handling of whole-tree bundles and conventional 5-m pulpwood. The study showed that the forwarding productivity of whole-tree bundles is about double compared to conventional pulpwood and whole trees, when using a solid volume of 0.5 m³ for the whole-tree bundles. In on-road transportation, the mean loading and unloading time of whole-tree bundles per truck load was 46% higher compared to that of conventional 5-m pulpwood.

Key words: Integrated harvesting, bundling, forwarding, transporting, energy wood